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Table 1 Description of population characteristics and results of bivariable and multivariable analysis for risk factors related to HR-HPV infection among women living with HIV in Manaus, Amazonas

From: High risk human papillomavirus prevalence and genotype distribution among women infected with HIV in Manaus, Amazonas

Variables HR-HPV negative n = 206 N (%)
Median (IQR)
HR-HPV positive n = 93 N (%)
Median (IQR)
Crude pOR
(95.0% CI)
p-value Adjusted pOR (95.0% CI) p-value
Sociodemographic       
Age in years (N = 299) 41.1 (45.9–33.5) 38.8 (31.2–44.4) 0.9 (0.9–1.0) 0.03 0.9 (0.9–1.0) 0.03
  ≤ 34 56 (27.2) 35 (37.6) 1    
 35–39 30 (14.6) 18 (19.3) 1.0 (0.5–2.0) 0.91
 40–44 55 (26.7) 18 (19.4) 0.5 (0.3–1.0) 0.27
  ≥ 45 65 (31.5) 22 (23.7) 0.5 (0.3–1.0) 0.06
Civil status (N = 299)       
 Married/cohabitating 133 (64.6) 50 (53.8) 1    
 Single/not cohabitating 73 (35.4) 43 (46.2) 1.5 (0.9–2.5) 0.08
Level of education (N = 299)
  < Primary school 42 (20.4) 25 (26.8) 1    
  At least primary school 164 (79.6) 68 (73.2) 1.4 (0.8–2.5) 0.21
Currently working (N = 299)
 Yes 83 (40.3) 31 (33.3) 1    
 No 123 (59.7) 62 (66.7) 1.3 (0.8–2.2) 0.25
Sexual behaviour and other risk behaviour
Current smokers (N = 299)
 No 191 (92.7) 88 (94.6) 1    
 Yes 15 (7.3) 5 (5.4) 0.7 (0.2–2.0) 0.54
Age at first sex (years) (N = 297)
  ≤ 15 108 (52.4) 44 (48.4) 0.8 (0.5–1.3) 0.52
  > 15 98 (47.6) 47 (51.6) 1    
Sexual partners in life to date (N = 297)
  < 4 60 (29.3) 28 (30.4) 1    
 4 to 7 65 (31.7) 32 (34.8) 1.0 (0.5–1.9) 0.87
  ≥ 8 80 (39.0) 32 (34.6) 0.8 (0.4–1.5) 0.62
Regular partner currently (N = 299)
 Yes 148 (71.8) 62 (66.7) 1    
 No 58 (28.2) 31 (33.3) 1.2 (0.7–2.1) 0.37
Condom use at last sex with regular partner (N = 210)
 Yes 107 (72.3) 45 (72.6) 1    
 No 41 (27.7) 17 (27.4) 0.9 (0.5–1.9) 0.97
Occasional sex partner currently (N = 299)
 No 184 (89.3) 82 (88.2) 1    
 Yes 22 (10.7) 11 (11.8) 1.1 (0.5–2.4) 0.78
Condom use at last sex with occasional partner (N = 33)
 Yes 16 (72.7) 8 (72.7) 1    
 No 6 (27.3) 3 (27.3) 1.0 (0.2–5.0) 1.00
Reproductive and sexual health
Current oral contraceptive use (N = 299)
 Yes 202 (98.1) 90 (96.7) 1    
 No 4 (1.9) 3 (3.3) 1.6 (0.3–7.6) 0.50
Previous cervical cytology (N = 299)
 Yes 204 (99.0) 87 (93.6) 1    
 No 2 (1.0) 6 (6.4) 7.0 (1.3–35.5) 0.02
Ever had an STI (N = 299)
 No 146 (70.9) 65 (69.9) 1    
 Yes 60 (29.1) 28 (30.1) 1.0 (0.6–1.7) 0.86
Parity (N = 299)       
 Nulliparous 11 (5.3) 10 (10.8) 1    
 1 to 3 97 (47.0) 39 (41.9) 0.4 (0.1–1.1) 0.09
  ≥ 4 98 (47.7) 44 (47.3) 0.4 (0.2–1.2) 0.14
Ever had an abortion (N = 278)
 No 90 (46.2) 44 (53.0) 1    
 Yes 105 (53.8) 39 (47.0) 0.7 (0.4–1.2) 0.30
HIV history
 Time since HIV diagnosis in years (N = 298) 6 (3–10) 5 (2–10) 0.9 (0.9–1.0) 0.53
 CD4 cell count nadirb (N = 294) 195 (83–317) 221 (86–357) 1.0 (0.9–1.0) 0.90
CD4 cells/mm3a (N = 298) 348 (197–550) 322 (162–491) 0.9 (0.9–1.0) 0.30   
 ≥500 115 (56.1) 36 (38.7) 1   1  
 200–499 79 (38.5) 41 (44.1) 1.6 (0.9–2.8) 0.06 1.6 (0.9–2.8) 0.06
 < 200 11 (5.4) 16 (17.2) 4.7 (2.0–11.3) < 0.001 4.7 (2.0–11.3) < 0.001
 Detectable viral load (copies/mL)a (N = 298) 6049 (390–32,000) 11,112.5 (1070–43,258.5) 1.0 (0.9–1.0) 0.60   
Current ART (N = 299)
 Yes 185 (89.8) 78 (83.9) 1    
 No 21 (10.2) 15 (16.1) 1.6 (0.8–3.4) 0.14
Previous change in ART regimen (N = 270)
 No 119 (62.9) 44 (54.3) 1    
 Yes 70 (37.1) 37 (45.7) 1.4 (0.8–2.4) 0.18
  1. ART Antiretroviral therapy, CI Confidence interval, IQR Interquartile range, pOR Prevalence odds ratio, SD Standard deviation, STI Sexually transmitted infection, p-value < 0.05: statistically significant
  2. aMost recent blood test collected within 3 months before enrolment
  3. bIt is the lowest CD4 cell count of the patient