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Table 1 Advanced under development universal influenza vaccines

From: Towards a universal influenza vaccine: different approaches for one goal

Vaccine approach Company Mechanism of protection Study phase References
Chimeric HA proteins GlaxoSmithKline • ADCC • Fusion inhibition Clinical phase 1 [35, 36]
Computationally optimized broadly reactive antigens (COBRA) Sanofi-Pasteur Elicitation of HAI+ antibodies Preclinical [62, 64, 66]
NP, M1 and HA peptides (M-001) BiondVax Pharmaceuticals Ltd B cell- and T cell-mediated immune response Clinical phase 2 [77,78,79]
  1. List of universal influenza vaccine candidates discussed in this review and currently in an advanced stage of development