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Table 2 Distribution and molecular characteristics of Norovirus in countries of the MENA region (2000-2015)

From: The epidemiology of Norovirus in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region: a systematic review

Country Population Participants’ Setting Study Period (months) Detection Method n Positive Rate Seasonal Peaks Predominant Genogroup/Genotype Article Number
Djibouti Adults Inpatients 18 RT-PCR 75 25.34%   GII.14 [55]
Egypt Children <3 Inpatients 24 RT-PCR 86 25.58%   GII [56]
Children <15 Outpatients 12 RT-PCR 500 16.20%    [57]
Children <5 Outpatients 36 EIA 2112 26.00% Summer   [58]
Children <18 In and Outpatients 12 RT-PCR 230 13.48% Winter GII.4 [59]
Iran Infants <1 In and Outpatients 3 IC 82 32.92%    [60]
Children <7 Inpatients 24 EIA 375 12.53% Fall   [61]
Children <5 Inpatients NM RT-PCR 2170 4.14%    [62]
All Ages Inpatients 12 RT-PCR 293 9.89%   GII.4 [63]
Children <5 Inpatients 24 Nested RT-PCR 143 6.29%   GII [64]
Children <17 Inpatients 24 Nested RT-PCR 47 21.30%   GII.4 [65]
Iraq Children <5 Inpatients 2 RT-PCR 260 30.00%   GII.4 [66]
Israel Children <5 In and Outpatients 84 rRT-PCR 673 9.95%   GII.4 [67]
Children <5 Inpatients 38 rRT-PCR 515 17.28%   GII.4 [68]
Jordan Children <5 Inpatients 24 rRT-PCR 368 11.41%   GII.3 [69]
Kuwait Children <5 Inpatients 9 ELISA / RT-PCR 170 5.23%   GII.4 [70]
Lebanon Children <10 Inpatients 2 EIA / RT-PCR 79 6.32%   GII [71]
Libya Children <5 In and Outpatients 12 rRT-PCR 520 17.50% Summer GII.4 [72]
Children <5 Outpatients 8 EIA 239 15.48% Fall   [39]
Morocco Children <5 Inpatients 12 Multiplex RT-PCR 122 0.82% Winter   [33]
Children <5 Inpatients 12 rRT-PCR 335 16.12% Summer GII.4 [73]
Qatar All Ages In and Outpatients 6 Multiplex rRT-PCR 288 28.47%    [74]
Saudi Arabia Children <6 In and Outpatients 12 ELISA 253 3.56% Fall and Spring   [37]
Children <5 Inpatients 6 EIA 284 4.58%    [38]
Tunisia Children <6 Inpatients 18 rRT-PCR 114 36.84% Winter GII.3 [34]
Children <6 Outpatients and Community 12 Multiplex RT-PCR 178 8.99% Fall and Winter GII.3 [75]
Children <13 In and Outpatients 36 RT-PCR 407 9.34% Winter GII.3 [76]
Children <12 In and Outpatients 52 RT-PCR 788 16.24% Fall and Winter GII.4 [77]
Children <12 In and Outpatients 30 RT-PCR 632 17.40% Winter and Summer GII.4 [78]
Turkey Children <17 In and Outpatients 12 Multiplex RT-PCR 240 23.34%    [79]
Children <16 In and Outpatients 24 IC 1027 10.90% Spring and Winter   [41]
Children <5 In and Outpatients 16 RT-PCR 150 10.00%   GII [80]
Children <16 Inpatients 12 IC 520 9.81% Summer   [40]
Children <6 NM 11 ELISA / RT-PCR 150 22.80%   GII.4 [81]
Children <14 Inpatients 16 ELISA / RT-PCR / rRT-PCR 238 15.13%   GII.4 [82]
Children <6 NM 11 Multiplex RT-PCR / EM 144 27.70%   GII.4 [83]
Children <10 Inpatients 8 RT-PCR 88 17.05%   GII.4 [84]
Yemen Children <5 In and Outpatients 17 RT-PCR 290 10.35%   GII.4 [85]