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Table 3 Detailed information on BLV infection levels worldwide

From: Epidemiology and genetic diversity of bovine leukemia virus

Geographical division Country Within country BLV prevalencea References
Europe Andorra Nationwide BLV-free, 1994 OIE, 2009 [103]
Cyprus Nationwide BLV-free, 1995 OIE, 2009 [103]
Czech Republic Nationwide BLV-free, 2010 OIE, 2009 [103]
Denmark Nationwide BLV-free, 1990 OIE, 2009 [103]
Estonia Nationwide BLV-free, 2013 OIE, 2009 [103]
Finland Nationwide BLV-free, 2008 OIE, 2009 [103]
Ireland Nationwide BLV-free, 1999 OIE, 2009 [103]
Norway Nationwide BLV-free, 2002 OIE, 2009 [103]
Spain Nationwide BLV-free, 1994 OIE, 2009 [103]
Switzerland Nationwide BLV-free, 2005 OIE, 2009 [103]
Sweden Nationwide BLV-free, 2007 OIE, 2009 [103]
Slovenia Nationwide BLV-free, 2006 OIE, 2009 [103]
UK Nationwide BLV-free, 1996 OIE, 2009 [103]
The Netherlands Nationwide BLV-free, 2009 OIE, 2012 [17]
Poland   BLV-free, 2017 EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare, 2017 [110]
Ukraine   Present OIE, 2012 [17]; Rola-Luszczak et al., 2013 [100]
Croatia   Present OIE, 2012 [17]; Balik et al., 2012
Italy   Present OIE, 2009 [103]; Molteni et al., 1996 [144]
Portugal   Present OIE, 2009 [103]
Belarus   Present OIE, 2012 [17]; Rola-Luszczak et al., 2013 [100]
Latvia   Present OIE, 2009 [103]
Romania   Restricted to certain area OIE, 2009 [103]
Bulgaria   Present OIE, 2009 [103]
Greece   Present OIE, 2009 [103]
Oceania Australia   BLV-free in dairy cattle, 2013 EPAHW, 2015 [113]
New Zealand   BLV-free, 2008 Chethanond, 1999 [114]
North America USA   83.9% dairy cattle; 39% beef cattle, 2007 APHIS, 2008 [115]
Canada Nationwide 89% at herd level APHIS, 2008 [115]
  Nationwide 78% at herd level, 1998–2003 Nekouei, 2015 [13]
  Saskatchewan 37.2% at individual level, 2001 VanLeeuwen et al., 2001 [116]
  Maritime 20.8% at individual and 70.0% at herd level, 1998–1999 VanLeeuwen et al., 2005 [117]
  Maritime 30.4% at individual and 90.8% at herd level, 2013 Nekouei, 2015 [118]
Mexico Nationwide 36.1% of dairy and 4.0% of beef cattle, 1983 Suzan et al., 1983 [119]
South America Brazil   17.1% to 60.8%, 1980–1989 and 1992–1995 Sammara et al., 1997 [120] ; D’Angelino et al., 1998 [121]
Argentina Buenos Aires 77.4% at individual and 90.9% at herd level, 2007 Polat et al., 2016 [75]
  Multiple regions 32.85% at individual and 84% at herd level, 1998–1999 Trono et al., 2001 [124]
Chile Southern region 27.9% at individual level, 2009 Polat et al., 2016 [75]
Bolivia Multiple regions 30.7% at individual level, 2008 Polat et al., 2016 [75]
Peru Multiple regions 42.3% at individual level, 2008 Polat et al., 2016 [75]
  Multiple regions 31.0% at individual level, 1983 Ch, 1983 [125]
Venezuela Nationwide 33.3% at individual level, 1978 Marin et al., 1978 [126]
Uruguay   Present Moratorio et al., 2010 [127]
Paraguay Asuncion 54.7% at individual level, 2008 Polat et al., 2016 [75]
Colombia Narino 19.8% at individual level, 2013 Benavides et al., 2013 [131]
Africa South Africa   BLV-free, 2012 OIE, 2012 [17]
Tunisia   BLV-free, 2005 OIE, 2009 [103]
Egypt   BLV-free, 1997 OIE, 2009 [103]
Asia Kazakhstan   BLV-free, 2007 OIE, 2009 [103]
Kyrgyzstan   BLV-free, 2008 OIE, 2009 [103]
China   49.1% of dairy and 1.6% of beef cattle, 2013–2014 Yang et al., 2016 [132]
Japan Nationwide 40.9% of dairy and 28.7% of beef cattle, 2009–2011 Murakami et al., 2013 [136]
  Nationwide 79.1% of dairy herd, 2007 Kobayashi et al., 2010 [134]
  Nationwide 28.6% overall; 34.7% of dairy, 16.3% of beef, and 7.9% of fattening beef cattle, 2007 Murakami et al., 2011 [135]
  Nationwide 73.3% at individual cattle, 2012–2014 Ohno et al., 2015 [83]
Mongolia   3.9% of dairy cattle, 2014 Ochirkhuu et al., 2016 [77]
Cambodia   5.3% of draught cattle, 2000 Meas et al., 2000 [137]
Taiwan   5.8% of dairy cattle, 1986 Wang et al., 1991 [48]
Iran Nationwide Between 22.1% to 25.4%, 2012–2014 Nekoei et al., 2015 [138]; Mousavi et al., 2014 [139].
  Khorasan Razavi 29.8% of dairy cattle, 2009 Mousavi et al., 2014 [139].
  Khorasan Shomali 1.5% of dairy cattle, 2009 Mousavi et al., 2014 [139].
Thailand   58.7% of cattle, 2013–2014 Lee et al., 2016 [102]
Philippines   4.8% to 9.7% of cattle, 2010–2012 Polat et al., 2015 [74]
Myanmar   9.1% at individual level 2016 Polat et al., 2016 [76]
Korea   54.2% of dairy cattle and 86.8% of dairy herds; 0.14% of beef cattle, 2014 Lee et al., 2015 [101]
Middle East Israeli   5% at individual level Trainin & Brenner, 2005 [140]
Saudi Arabia   20.2% of dairy cattle, 1990 Hafez et al., 1990 [141]
Turkey   48.3% of dairy herd Burgu et al., 2005 [142]
  1. BLV prevalence in this table shows BLV infection in certain specific period. Therefore, there might be a change in BLV prevalence in different times
  2. APHIS Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, BLV bovine leukemia virus, EFSA European Food Safety Authority, EPAHW European Panal on Animal Health and Welfare, OIE The World Organisation for Animal Health
  3. Note: aBLV prevalence in each sample collection year; however, no information about sample collection year was provided in some cases