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Table 1 Advantages of using nanoparticles as a carrier for some anti-HCV compounds

From: Hepatitis C virus management: potential impact of nanotechnology

Carrier for: Composition Advantages
RBV-boronic acid PGA and acylated PGA NPs encapsulating RBV-boronic acid Decreases RBV accumulation in red blood cells to help prevent hemolytic anemia
RBV monophosphate Mixture of arabinogalactan–poly (L-lysine) and poly (D, L-lactic acid) polymer 1- Stable, biodegradable nanocomplex
2- Dual function of targeting hepatocytes and sustained release of RBV
3- RBV accumulates in liver of mice after i.v. administration of RBV monophosphate, then RBV content gradually decreases for at least 7 days
CsA PLGA NPs 1- Reduces toxic effects associated with free CsA
2- Decreased immunosuppressive effects compared to conventional treatment with CsA
HCV vaccine CpG oligodeoxynucleotide + recombinant HCV NS3 encapsulated in a cationic liposome Increases not only cellular but also humoral immune response against HCV NS3
Anti-HCV peptides P41, peptide derived from HCV NS5A + ionic nanocomplex 1- Decreases cytotoxicity, hemolytic effect and proteolytic degradation while maintaining antiviral activity against HCV
2- Inhibits HCV core and NS5A proteins from binding with lipid droplets, which is known to be an essential step for viral assembly and release
Anti-HCV siRNA Galactose functionalized dendritic nanovector + siRNA against the 5' untranslated region of HCV genome 1- Improves cellular uptake of siRNA
2- Decreases rapid degradation of siRNA by nucleases and improves their blood stability
Anti-HCV deoxyribozymes Iron oxide magnetic NPs as a carrier for DNAzyme Dz681 1- Inhibits HCV NS3 replication through the knockdown of HCV NS3 gene expression
2- Higher knockdown efficiency than free DNAzyme transfected with Lipofectamine 2000
3- Did not induce any undesired immune responses in vitro
Anti-HCV phenolic compounds Silibinin, the active polyphenolic agent of milk thistle, incorporated with liposomes as a nanovector 1 -Improves solubility and delivery of silibinin
2 -Non-toxic and high antiviral activity to prevent entry with preferential absorption by hepatocyte
Anti-HCV aptamer Magnetic nanoconjugate + aptamer (Apt-E1E2-6) 1- Efficiently eradicates HCV particles and decreases the viral titer from human plasma samples
2- Provides non-invasive technique for HCV removal with minimal side effects
HCV polymerase inhibitors and protease inhibitors HCV protease and polymerase inhibitors + anti-fibrotic/anti-hemolytic + viral entry inhibitor agents + naturally driven polyphenol/thiols and non-anticoagulant GAGs Allows for optimal antiviral efficacy and optimal safety profile
  1. Abbreviations: CsA cyclosporine A, NPs nanoparticles, PGA polyglycerol adipate, PLGA poly lactic-co-glycolic acid, RBV ribavirin