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Table 3 Bovine miRNAs up-regulated and down-regulated in cow serum in response to persistent FMDV infection

From: Proof-of-concept study: profile of circulating microRNAs in Bovine serum harvested during acute and persistent FMDV infection

miRNA regulation in Bovine serum during persistent FMDV infection
Persistently Infected FMDV Carriers
miRNA Fold change p-value Ascribed function Ref
miR-1281 −3.41 0.004 □ Lipid metabolism: in dairy cattle, role in adipogenesis □ [50]
miR-181b −2.77 0.044 □ Cellular proliferation: targets RASSF1A and NF-KB
□ Immune modulatory: adenylyl cyclase 9 (AC9), antagonistic to IFNα expression
□ [123,124,125,126]
miR-23b-5p −2.44 0.047 □ Tumor suppressor: up-regulated by p53, targets mitochondrial glutaminase, antagonizes c-Myc signaling, and suppresses metastasis
□ Cellular proliferation: targets proline oxidase
□ [127,128,129,120,121,122,123,125,126,127,128,129,130,131,132]
miR-22-5p +2.17 0.003 □ Tumor suppressor: targets CDK6, SIRT1, and Sp1
□ Circulating miRNA bio-marker for Huntington’s Disease and acute phase myocardial infarction
□ Involved in neonatal heart development
□ Anti-inflammatory: negatively regulates type I IFN inflammatory cytokine response
□ [82,83,84,85,86, 88]
miR-147 +5.28 0.039 □ Anti-inflammatory: TLR2, TLR3, and TLR4 stimulate miR-147 expression, which participates in negative feedback loop to suppress inflammatory cytokine expression
□ Up-regulated by HCV Genotype-4
□ Tumor suppressor: targets HOXC6 oncogene
□ [133,134,135]
miR-1224 +5.69 0.042 □ Tumor suppressor: targets CREB1 □ [136]
miR-144 +23.78 0.037 □ Tumor suppressor: targets cyclin E1 (CCNE1), ROCK1, ROCK2, SMAD4, TIGAR, E2F3, ADAMTS5, ADAM10, RAB14, ZEB1/2, and c-Met □ [103,104,105,106,107,108,109,110,111,112]
miR-154a +24.05 0.039 □ Tumor suppressor: targets E2F5, ZEB2, Wnt5a, Wnt11, TLR2, and HMGA2 □ [137,138,139,140,141,142,143]
miR-497 +24.62 0.044 □ Tumor suppressor: targets CCNE1, insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R), checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1), represses eIF4E, E3 ubiquitin ligase □ [89,90,91,92, 144]
miR-17-5p +40.84 0.029 □ Cellular proliferation: targets SMAD7, FBXO31, E2F1, and c-Myc
□ Repressed HCV production, inversely correlated with HCV treatment response
□ HIV-1 Tat C modulates NOX2 and NOX4 via miR-17-5p
□ Immune modulatory: suppresses TLR signaling through IL-6 and represses IFN-stimulated MxA expression
□ [121, 122]
miR-205 +41.22 0.027 □ De-regulates lipid metabolism by targeting ACSL1
□ Cellular proliferation: targets ZEB1, ZEB2, Ubc13, PTEN, IL13RA2, COL5A2, ADM, CXCR2, XPO6, SPSB1, FMO5, and PSMF1
□ HBV X protein hyper-methylates promoter of miR-205 to suppress apoptosis
□ [145, 146]
miR-31 +43.37 0.018 □ Cellular proliferation: up-regulated in tumor cells
□ Downstream target genes of miR-31 have an effect on lipid metabolism and adipogenesis
□ Innate immunity related: targets MyD88 and interferes with TLR2 and TLR4 signaling
□ [147,148,149,150,151]
Convalescent Cattle (Non-Carriers)
miR-455-3p +68.17 0.039 □ Tumor suppressor: targets RAF □ [61]
miR-150 −1.65 0.044 □ Immune modulatory: targets MyD88 (key TLR regulator) and CXCR4 □ [147]
  1. List of bovine miRNAs that were observed to be up-regulated and down-regulated in serum samples collected from cattle persistently infected with FMDV (“FMDV carriers”) and convalescent cattle that had successfully cleared infection (“non-carriers”). Differential miRNA expression is presented relative to uninfected animals. Shown are the miRNA species, the fold-change in expression levels (in ascending order), and the ascribed function from literature searches of cattle miRNAs and homologous miRNAs from other species with little to no sequence divergence. The miRNAs listed showed a fold-change in expression levels of greater than 1.50, and had p-values of <0.05