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Table 1 Comparison of the types of cellular transcription factors and the number of their cognate binding sites on the antisense promoters of human-specific ERVK, HIV-1, and HTLV-1. Sequences of the consensus binding sites for cellular transcription factors predicted to bind these retroviral antisense LTRs are also shown

From: The sense behind retroviral anti-sense transcription

Transcription Factor Consensus binding site sequence Number of putative binding sites predicted in 3′ LTR
ERVK HS HIV-1 HTLV-1
Activating Protein 1 (AP-1) c-Jun/c-Fos TGA (G/C) TCA 5 3 2
Activating Protein 2α (AP-2α) GCCNNNGGC 5 2 14
Activating Transcription Factor-3 (ATF-3) T (T/G) ACGT (A/C) (A/G) 1 --- 3
Androgen Receptor (AR) GG (A/T) ACANNNTGTTCT (ARE) 1 --- ---
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor / AhR nuclear translocator (AhR/ARNT) TNGCGTG 2 3 4
cAMP Response Element Binding Protein (CREB) TGACGTCA --- --- 2
CCAAT-Enhancer Binding Protein (C/EBP) A (A/G/T) C (C/A) AAT 7 3 3
Cellular Myeloblastosis virus protein (c-Myb) (T/C) AAC (G/T) G 12 7 8
Cellular Myelocytomatosis virus protein (c-Myc) NNNCACGTGNN (E-box) 10 1 2
Chicken Ovalbumin Upstream Promoter Transcription Factor-1 (COUPT or COUPTF-1) (A/G) G (G/T) TCA 7 15 13
E2 Factor-1 (E2F-1) TTT (C/G) (C/G) CGC --- --- 2
Early B-cell Factor (EBF) CCCNNGGG 9 4 7
EGFR-specific Transcription Factor (ETF) G/C rich regions 14 4 19
Enkephalin Transcription Factor-1 (ENKTF-1) TGGCGTA 1 --- ---
Estrogen Receptor (ER-α; ER-β) GGTCANNNTGACC (ERE) 1 --- ---
E-twenty six (ETS-1; ETS-2) GGA (A/T) 12 8 7
ETS-like Transcription Factor 1 (Elk-1; ELF-1) CAGGAA (C/G) (PU Box) 5 1 2
Forkhead Box P3 (FOXP3) (G/A) (T/C) AAACA 14 1 3
GATA binding proteins  GATA - 1, 4, 5  GATA - 2, 3  GATA - 6 (A/T) GATA (A/G) (GATA Box) (A/T) GAT (A/C) (A/G) (A/T) GAT (T/C) (A/G) 3 2 1
6 6 2
7 5 2
GC Binding Factor (GCF) GCGGGGC --- --- 1
Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR-α; GR- β) GGTACANNNTGTTC (GRE) 1 --- ---
Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor-3/4 (HNF3; HNF4) GGTCA repeats 3 --- 3
Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor-1 (HNF1) GTTAATNATTAAC 1 --- ---
Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1 (HIF-1) (A/G) CGTG (flanked by (A/C) ACAG) 3 1 2
Ikarose-1 (IK-1) TGGGA (A/T) 16 5 6
Interferon Regulatory Factors (IRF) GAAANN repeats (ISRE) 2 --- 2
Lymphoid Enhancer-binding Factor 1 (LEF-1) CTTTGAA 3 --- ---
Myc Associated Zinc finger protein (MAZ) GGGAGGG 9 1 6
Nuclear Factor of Activated T cells (NFAT) GGAGAA 10 --- 7
Nuclear Factor I (NFI; NFI/CTF) TTGGCNNNNNGCCAA --- --- 2
Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-κB) GG (G/A) (G/A) NN (C/T) (C/T) CC 9 7 6
Nuclear Factor-Y (NF-Y) CCAAT 2 --- 3
Polyomavirus Enhancer Activator 3 (PEA or PEA-3) GGA (A/T) 12 8 7
Progesterone Receptor (PR-A; PR-B) GNACANNNTGTNC (PRE) 1 --- ---
Protein 53 (p53) CATTAG 8 1 1
Recombination signal Binding Protein-Jκ (RBP-Jκ) (C/T) GTGGGAA 1 --- ---
Retinoid X Receptorα (RXRa) AGGTCA 11 4 7
Serum Response Factor (SRF) C (C/T) (A/T)6GG 2 4 2
Sex-determining Region Y (SRY) (A/T) (A/T) CAA (A/T) 12 4 3
Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STAT) TTCNNNNGAA 10 4 8
Specificity Protein-1 (Sp1) GGGCGG 15 1 14
TATA Binding Protein (TBP) TATAAA 1 --- 1
T cell Factor-4E (TCF-4E) (G/C) ATCAAAGG 1 --- ---
Thyroid Hormone Receptor (TRβ) TGAGGTCA (TRE) 1 --- 1
Transcription Factor II-D (TFII-D) TATAAA 1 --- 1
Transcription Factor II-I (TFII-I) CANNTG 13 3 1
Upstream Transcription Factor (USF-1, USF-2) CACGTG (E-box) 10 1 2
Vitamin D Receptor (VDR) G (G/T) TCA 25 20 21
X-box binding protein (XBP-1) CCACG 9 9 9
Yin Yang 1 (YY1) GCCATNTT 1 --- 1
  1. --- indicates no putative binding sites
  2. ARE androgen response element, E-box enhancer box, ERE estrogen response element, PU Box purine box, GRE glucocorticoid response element, ISRE interferon stimulated response element, PRE progesterone response element, TRE thyroid hormone response element