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Table 3 Exposure/risk factors related to the presence of anti-OPV neutralizing antibodies

From: Seroprevalence of Orthopoxvirus in rural Brazil: insights into anti-OPV immunity status and its implications for emergent zoonotic OPV

Exposure factors N (%) PRNT positive (%) PRNT negative (%) P value
Contact with bovines or equids     
 Yes 169 (70.4) 59 (35.0) 110 (65.0) 0.035
 No 71 (29.6) 15 (21.2) 56 (78.8)  
Contact with others domestic animalsa     
 Yes 122 (50.8) 38 (25.0) 84 (75.0) 0.915
 No 118 (49.2) 36 (30.5) 82 (69.5)  
Contact with wild environmentb     
 Yes 117 (48.8) 37 (31.6) 80 (68.4) 0.796
 No 123 (51.2) 37 (31.8) 86 (68.2)  
Practice milking     
 Yes 91 (37.9) 35 (38.5) 56 (61.5) 0.046
 No 149 (62.1) 39 (26.2) 110 (73.8)  
Kind of milkingc     
 Manual 60 (65.9) 26 (43.3) 34 (56.7) 0.193
 Mechanic 31 (34.1) 9 (29.1) 22 (70.9)  
Number of milkings/dayc     
 1/day 52 (57.1) 24 (46.2) 28 (53.8) 0.082
 2/day 39 (42.9) 11 (28.2) 28 (71.8)  
Raw milk/cheese consumption     
 Yes 217 (90.4) 70 (22.3) 147 (67.7) 0.142
 No 23 (9.6) 4 (13.4) 19 (86.6)  
Participate in cheese production     
 Yes 51 (21.3) 24 (47.1) 27 (52.9) 0.005
 No 189 (78.7) 50 (26.5) 139 (73.5)  
Vaccine taked     
 Yes 77 (32.1) 44 (57.1) 33 (42.9) <0.0001
 No 163 (67.9) 30 (19.4) 133 (80.6)  
Outbreak on property     
 Yes 20 11 (54.0) 9 (45.0) 0.015
 No 220 63 (26.9) 157 (71.3)  
Total 240 (100.0) 74 (30.8) 166 (69.2)  
  1. a: Other domestic animals includes cats, dogs, goats, sheeps, pigs, chickens and ducks; b: Reported by those who were in the wild environment to hunt, gather firewood and fetch some animals of property, such as horse; c: The number of individuals in these two groups is relative to positives in practice milking group (N = 91); d: Individuals who had a vaccine scar on left arm