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Table 1 Summary of important studies that screened bats for beta-coronaviruses and MERS-CoV

From: Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) origin and animal reservoir

Location Year Species Number Specimen Virus % Positive
Ghana [8] 2009–2011 Nycteris cf. gambiensis 185 Fecal 2c betacoronaviruses(closely related to MERS-CoV) 24.9 %
Ghana [8] 2009–2011 9 different speciesa 4573 Fecal 0 %
Europe [8] (Germany, Netherland, Romania, Ukraine) 2009–2011 Pipistrellus kuhlii, P. nathusii, P. pipistrellus, P. pygmaeus 272 Fecal 14.7 %
South Africa [9] 2011–2012 13 different speciesb 62 Fecal pellets bat related-alphacoronaviruses betacoronavirus 6.4 % 1.6 %
Saudi Arabia [10] 2012 Rhinopomahardwickii, R.microphyllum, Taphozous perforatus, P. kuhlii, Eptesicus bottae, Eidolon helvum, and Rosettus aegyptiacus 96 Throat swab, serum, urine, rectal swab or fecal pellets MERS-CoV 1 %
Saudi Arabia [10] 2013 R.hardwickii, T.perforates, P.kuhlii 14 Throat swabs, roost feces MERS-CoV 0 %
Egypt [11] 2013–2015 T. perforatus 82 Serum/rectal (alive) MERS-CoV 0 %
P. deserti 31
R. aegyptiacus 257
Lebanon [11] 2013–2015 R. hipposideros 4 Homogenized lung and liver material (if died or euthanized upon capture) 0 %
Miniopterus schribersii 6
R. ferrumequinm 3
R. aegyptiacus 438
  1. aColeura afra, Hipposiderosabae, H. cf. gigas, H. fuliginosus, H. jonesi, H. cf. ruber, Rhinolophus alcyone, R. landeri, Taphozous perforates
  2. b Chaerephonpumilus, Mops condylurus, Tadaridaaegyptiaca, H.caffer, Miniopterus natalensis, Nycteristhebaica, R.clivosus, R. darlingi, Neoromicia capensis, N. nana, N. cf. zuluensis, Scotophilus viridis, Rousettus aegyptiacus