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Table 4 Evolutionary characteristics of HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-HKU1 genotypes

From: Molecular epidemiology and evolutionary histories of human coronavirus OC43 and HKU1 among patients with upper respiratory tract infections in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Subtype-gene evolutionary ratea Genotype tMRCAb
OC43-Spike 7.2 (5.2–9.4)   
  all genotypes 1952.2 (1931.0–1965.2)
  genotype A 1961.8 (1955.1–1966.0)
  genotype B 1991.0 (1981.4–1999.0)
  genotype C/D 2001.7 (2000.1–2002.9)
  genotype D 2004.5 (2003.3–2005.8)
  genotype E 2009.3 (2008.3–2010.0)
  novel lineage 1 2007.5 (2006.6–2008.0)
  novel lineage 2 2010.5 (2009.5–2011.4)
HKU1-Spike 6.2 (4.5–8.0)   
  all genotypes 1957.2 (1920.3–1987.5)
  genotype A 1999.4 (1994.8–2002.5)
genotype B 2001.2 (1997.6–2003.6)
genotype C 2002.3 (1999.8–2003.8)
HKU1-Nucleocapsid 4.3 (2.8–5.8)   
  all genotypes 1962.0 (1915.1–1994.8)
genotype A 1986.8 (1970.8–1999.0)
genotype B 2002.2 (1999.4–2002.2)
genotype C 2002.3 (2000.1–2003.8)
  1. aEstimated mean rates of evolution expressed as 10−4 nucleotide substitutions/site/year under a relaxed molecular clock with GTR + I substitution model and an Exponential tree model. The 95 % highest posterior density (HPD) confidence intervals are included in parentheses
  2. bMean time of the most common ancestor (tMRCA, in calendar year). The 95 % highest posterior density (HPD) confidence intervals are indicated