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Table 3 Mutations in the receptor binding and antigenic sites of Egyptian H5N1 viruses from 2006-14

From: Phylodynamics of avian influenza clade 2.2.1 H5N1 viruses in Egypt

HA mutation Years of detection Virus cluster Total
2.2.1 2.2.1.2 2.2.1.1 2.2.1.1a
changes in RBS       
129∆ 2008–2014 - 221 - 1 222
changes in AS       
P74S 2007–2009 3 - 31 38 25
S120N 2007–2014 - 88 3 4 94
S120D 2010–2014 - 128 - - 128
I151T 2008–2014 - 223 - 4 227
D154N 2007–2014 6 154 9 37 206
R162K 2007–2014 8 169 23 17 217
R162I 2006–2013 17 1 - - 18
R162E 2008–2011 - 1 2 18 21
R140G + S141P 2007–2011 3 - 26 29 58
R140G + S141L 2009–2010 - - 4 4 8
S141P 2008–2014 6 9 - 3 18
129L + P74S 2008–2010 - - 7 28 35
129∆ + S120N + I151T 2009–2014 - 86 - - 86a
129∆ + S120D + I151T 2010–2014 - 126 - - 126a
  1. RBS the receptor binding sites, AS the antigenic sites
  2. aTriple mutation associated with increased binding affinity to human cell receptors
  3. The calculation was based on a total number of 368 viruses where 2.2.1 = 75, 2.2.1.2 = 224, 2.2.1.1 = 31 and 2.2.1.1 a =38