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Fig. 2 | Virology Journal

Fig. 2

From: H2AX phosphorylation and DNA damage kinase activity are dispensable for herpes simplex virus replication

Fig. 2

ATM and ATR inhibitors moderately reduce HSV-1 DNA replication and virion production. a and b HFFs were infected with HSV-1 (panel a) or HSV-2 (panel b) and immediately overlaid with ATM (KU-55933) or ATR (VE-821) kinase inhibitors alone or in combination. Total DNA was harvested at 24 h p.i. and viral DNA (vDNA) was quantified by qPCR. ICP0 levels were normalized to 18S controls and to DMSO-treated samples using the 2–ΔΔCt method. Grey lines indicate the average of three experiments with infections at either low MOI (0.1; circles) or high MOI (5; squares). c Plaque assays were performed on a representative experiment from panel (a). Each column represents the average and standard deviation of viral yield from biological triplicates. d. HFFs were infected with HSV-1 at MOI 5 in the absence or presence of kinase inhibitors. Viral gene transcript levels were quantified at 6 h p.i. by qPCR and normalized to 18S and DMSO levels (grey line denotes average of three experiments). Asterisks indicate results that are statistically significant relative to DMSO control at p < 0.05

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