Skip to main content

Table 1 Comparison of drug resistance level between genotype and phenotype, focusing on the HIV-1 gag-pol region

From: Drug susceptibility to etravirine and darunavir among Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-derived pseudoviruses in treatment-experienced patients with HIV/AIDS in South Korea

Strain or isolates § Characteristics (PI/NRTI/NNRTI-drug resistance-related mutation sites) Subtype   Antiretroviral drugs
Sample date (PR/RT)   APV IDV DRV EFV ETR
HIV-1 pNL4-3 Wild type (None/None/None) B/B Genotypea (Mutation Score) S (0) S (0) S (0) S (0) S (0)
Phenotypeb (IC50, FC*) 7.17 nM, 1 13.5 nM, 1 6.80E–01 nM, 1 4.40E–02 nM, 1 1.34E–02 nM, 1
KRB8067 Treatment-experienced patient infected with HIV. Treatment with AZT, 3TC, and IDV from Jul. 2003 to Apr. 2006 B/B Genotype (Mutation Score) R (60) R (80) S (0) S (0) S (0)
(M46I,I54V,V82A,L10F/M184V/None) Apr. 24, 2006 Phenotype (IC50, FC) 3.52 nM, 0.5 34.4 nM, 2.6 8.58E–02 nM, 0.1 5.00E–02 nM, 1.1 7.99E–02 nM, 6.0
KRC2065 Treatment-experienced patient infected with HIV. Treatment with AZT, 3TC, and IDV from May 2002 to Oct. 2004. B/B Genotype (Mutation Score) S (0) S (0) S (0) S (0) S (0)
(L10V/M41L,M184V/None) Oct. 14, 2004 Phenotype (IC50, FC) 171 nM, 23.9 91.7 nM, 6.8 43.8 nM, 64.4 5.47 nM, 124.3 3.84E–01 nM, 28.7
KRB5018 Treatment-experienced patient infected with HIV. Treatment with AZT, ddI, 3TC, IDV, and EFV from Jul. 1998 to Dec. 2004. B/B Genotype (Mutation Score) S (0) S (0) S (0) R (90) I [15]
(L10I/M41L,L74V,M184V,L210W,T215Y,K219N/L100I,K103N) Dec. 27, 2004 Phenotype (IC50, FC) 44.2 nM, 6.2 4.83 nM, 0.4 2.53E–01 nM, 0.4 119 nM, 2704.6 9.20E–01 nM, 68.7
KRC2092 Treatment-experienced patient infected with HIV. Treatment with AZT, 3TC, IDV, and EFV from Jan. 2003 to Nov. 2004. B/B Genotype (Mutation Score) S (0) S (0) S (0) R (80) S (5)
(None/D67N,M184V,L210W,T215Y/A98G,K103N,K238T) Nov. 29, 2004 Phenotype (IC50, FC) 81.9 nM, 11.4 53.4 nM, 4.0 1.45 nM, 2.1 10.5 nM, 238.6 5.00E–02 nM, 3.7
KRB4025 Treatment-experienced patient infected with HIV. Treatment with AZT, LPV/RTV, ddI, and 3TC from May 2003 to Feb. 2009. B/B Genotype (Mutation Score) R (145) R (90) I (30) I (30) I (30)
(M46I,L76V,V82C,I84V,L10I,V11I/M41L,T69D,L210W,T215Y/Y181C) Feb. 9, 2009 Phenotype (IC50, FC) <1e–004 nM, >>> >1000 nM, >> 164 nM, 241.2 7.51 nM, 170.7 5.77 nM, 430.6
KRB8014 Treatment-experienced patient infected with HIV. Treatment with AZT, IDV, 3TC, ddI, EFV, and LPV/RTV from Jun. 1998 to Mar. 2009. D/B Genotype (Mutation Score) R (140) R (150) I (20) R (90) I (15)
(M46L,I54V,L76V,V82A,L90M,L10V,K43T,A71V/M41L,L74V,M184V,L210W,T215C,K219E/L100I,K103N) Mar. 5, 2009 Phenotype (IC50, FC) <1e–004 nM, >>> >1000 nM, >> 162 nM, 238.2 6.34E–02 nM, 1.4 6.03E–02 nM, 4.5
KRC3221 Treatment-experienced patient infected with HIV. B/B Genotype (Mutation Score) S (10) I (30) S (0) I (15) S (0)
(V82A,L10I/L210W,T215Y/K103T) Nov. 1, 2008 Phenotype (IC50, FC) 141 nM, 19.7 324 nM, 24.0 1.70 nM, 2.5 8.41E–01 nM, 19.1 3.04E–02 nM, 2.3
KRC0064 Treatment-experienced patient infected with HIV. Treatment with AZT, 3TC, and LPV/RTV from Feb. 2009 to Oct. 2009. B/B Genotype (Mutation Score) S (0) S (0) S (0) S (0) S (0)
(None/None/None) Oct. 22, 2009 Phenotype (IC50, FC) 1.69 nM, 0.2 8.98E–01 nM, 0.1 5.87E–02 nM, 0.1 4.10E–01 nM,9.3 8.83E–02 nM,6.6
KRC4543 Treatment-experienced patient infected with HIV. Treatment with 3TC, EFV, and AZT from May 2008 to Jan. 2009 B/B Genotype (Mutation Score) I (20) I (20) S (0) R (90) I (30)
(L90M,L10I,A71V/M41L,T69i,M184V,T215F/K101P,K103N) Phenotype (IC50, FC) 21.5 nM, 3.0 129 nM, 9.6 2.26 nM, 3.3 1.39E–01 nM, 3.2 7.73E–02 nM, 5.8
Jan. 8, 2009
  1. aGenotype means predicted genotypic drug resistance against antiretroviral drugs based on the Stanford DB. The Mutation Score is provided as the sum of the scores of each drug-resistance-related mutation site.
  2. Key: S, susceptible (susceptible, potential low-level resistance); I, intermediate (low-level, intermediate-level resistance); R, resistant (high-level resistance).
  3. (ARV Resistance Estimates based on the Stanford DB were evaluated as overall scores of fold increase in resistance as ‘Susceptible’ (0–14), ‘Intermediate’ (15–59), and ‘Resistant’ (>60) compared with the WT-derived pseudovirus as a standard).
  4. PR means protease and RT means reverse transcriptase.
  5. Three protease inhibitors (PIs): indinavir sulfate (IDV, Merck & Co., Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA), amprenavir (APV, GlaxoSmithKline (GSK)), and darunavir (DRV, Tibotec).
  6. Two non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs): efavirenz (EFV, Merck) and etravirine (ETR, Tibotec).
  7. §All patient-related data were anonymized before analysis and all indications were converted into designated labels at the Korea Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (KCDC).
  8. bPhenotype means phenotypic drug susceptibility based on 50% inhibitory concentration and calculated fold change.
  9. *FC (fold change) in ‘Phenotype’ means fold resistance values compared with the WT pseudovirus based on data obtained using a modified phenotypic drug susceptibility assay. The drug resistance index calculated by phenotypic drug susceptibility was compared with that of WT-derived pseudovirus by fold change.