Murine alveolar macrophage MH-S cells produce neutrophil-attracting chemokines constitutively and after infection with MVA. A) MH-S cells were infected with MVA-GFP at the indicated MOI and infectivity was measured 16 h p.i. by flow cytometry. B) MH-S cells were infected with MVA or VACV WR at an MOI of 0.5 and 1, or challenged with LPS (1 μg/ml). Total RNA was isolated 8 h p.i. and investigated subsequently by specific RT-PCR as indicated. Fold induction of CXCL2 and CCL2 were calculated based on the intensity of PCR products using Image Lab 5.0 (Bio-Rad). Data from mock-treated cells were set to 1. C) Cell culture supernatants of MVA and VACV WR infected MH-S cells (1 MOI) were harvested 8 h p.i. and D) 16 h p.i., and chemokine concentrations determined by specific ELISA. Data are means ± SD and are representative of at least two independent experiments, *, P < 0.05; ANOVA with Bonferroni post-hoc test.