Heatmap for the differentially expressed genes separating controls from infected patients. Each row represents a gene and each column represents a sample. The top 50 down- and up-regulated genes (FDR < 0.05; Additional file 2) common in HH, HIV, and HCV versus healthy controls are shown. Red indicates higher expression and green indicates lower expression. Controls: ctrl1-5; HIV+ patients: HIV1-7; HIV/HCV co-infected patients: coinfec1-10; HCV+ patients: HCV1-5.