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Table 2 Risk factors of single and multiple carcinogenic HPV infection in unadjusted and multivariable-adjusted multinomial logistic regression

From: The diversity of human papillomavirus infection among human immunodeficiency virus-infected women in Yunnan, China

Factor Total No carcinogenicHPV infectiona Single carcinogenic HPV Multiple carcinogenic HPV
  N (%) n (%) n (%) Unadjusted OR (95%CI) p n (%) Unadjusted OR (95%CI) p
Unadjusted analysis         
Age         
(per year increase) 301(100.0) 188(100.0) 80(100.0) 1.03(1.00-1.06) 0.025 33(100.0) 1.02(0.98-1.01) 0.279
Married status         
  No-cohabiting 66(21.9) 39(20.7) 17(21.3) 1.00   10(30.3) 1.00  
Married/cohabiting 235(78.1) 149(79.3) 63(78.8) 0.97(0.51-1.84) 0.926 23(69.7) 0.60(0.27-1.37) 0.226
Completed years of education        
  ≤4 151(50.2) 98(52.1) 38(47.5) 1.00   15(45.5) 1.00  
  ≥5 150(49.8) 90(47.9) 42(52.5) 1.20(0.71-2.03) 0.488 18(54.5) 1.31(0.62-2.75) 0.480
Family income (USD)         
  ≤80.5 per month 134(44.5) 79(42.0) 37(46.3) 1.00   18(54.5) 1.00  
  >80.5 per month 167(55.5) 109(58.0) 43(53.8) 0.84(0.50-1.43) 0.523 15(45.5) 0.60(0.29-1.27) 0.184
Smoking         
  No 253(84.1) 157(83.5) 70(87.5) 1.00   26(78.8) 1.00  
  Yes 48(15.9) 31(16.5) 10(12.5) 0.72(0.34-1.56) 0.408 7(21.2) 1.36(0.54-3.42) 0.509
Patient’s partner infected with HIV        
  No 113(37.5) 70(37.2) 34(42.5) 1.00   9(27.3) 1.00  
  Yes 188(62.5) 118(62.8) 46(57.5) 0.80(0.47-1.37) 0.419 24(72.7) 1.58(0.70-3.60) 0.274
Age at first sex         
  ≤18 years 95(31.6) 62(33.0) 24(30.0) 1.00   9(27.3) 1.00  
  >18 years 206(68.4) 126(67.0) 56(70.0) 1.15(0.65-2.02) 0.633 24(72.7) 1.31(0.58-2.99) 0.518
Lifetime sex partners         
  ≤2 213(70.8) 137(72.9) 55(68.8) 1.00   21(63.6) 1.00  
  >2 88(29.2) 51(27.1) 25(31.3) 1.22(0.69-2.61) 0.494 12(36.4) 1.54(0.80-3.34) 0.281
History of STI         
  No 228(75.7) 136(72.3) 66(82.5) 1.00   26(78.8) 1.00  
  Yes 73(24.3) 52(27.7) 14(17.5) 0.56(0.29-1.07) 0.080 7(21.2) 0.70(0.29-1.72) 0.442
Condom use         
  No 124(41.2) 84(44.7) 26(32.5) 1.00   14(42.4) 1.00  
  Yes 177(58.8) 104(55.3) 54(67.5) 1.68(0.97-2.91) 0.065 19(57.6) 1.10(0.52-2.32) 0.810
Total number of pregnancies         
  <3 160(53.2) 101(53.7) 41(51.3) 1.00   18(54.5) 1.00  
  ≥3 141(46.8) 87(46.3) 39(48.8) 1.10(0.65-1.87) 0.710 15(45.5) 0.97(0.46-2.03) 0.930
CD4+ cell count         
(increase by 100/μL) 301(100.0) 188(100.0) 80(100.0) 0.89(0.80-0.99) 0.039 33(100.0) 0.91(0.78-1.06) 0.230
ART therapy         
  No 108(35.9) 71(37.8) 24(30.0) 1.00   13(39.4) 1.00  
  Yes 193(64.1) 117(62.2) 56(70.0) 1.42(0.81-2.48) 0.225 20(60.6) 0.93(0.44-1.99) 0.859
Duration on ART (years)         
  No 108(35.9) 71(37.8) 24(30.0) 1.00   13(39.4) 1.00  
  <2 94(31.2) 51(27.1) 28(35.0) 1.62(0.85-3.12) 0.146 15(45.5) 1.61(0.70-3.67) 0.260
  ≥2 99(32.9) 66(35.1) 28(35.0) 1.26(0.66-2.38) 0.487 5(15.2) 0.41(0.14-1.22) 0.111
Cervical lesion         
  No 251(83.4) 173(92.0) 57(71.3) 1.00   21(63.6) 1.00  
  Yes 50(16.6) 15(8.0) 23(28.8) 4.65(2.27-9.52) <0.001 12(36.4) 6.59(2.72-15.95) <0.001
  Total No carcinogenic HPV infection a Single carcinogenic HPV Multiple carcinogenic HPV
  N (%) n (%) n (%) Adjusted OR (95%CI) p n (%) Adjusted OR (95%CI) p
Multivariable-adjusted analysis b         
Age         
(per year increase) 301(100.0) 188(100.0) 80(100.0) 1.04(1.01-1.07) 0.012 33(100.0) 1.03(0.99-1.08) 0.132
CD4+         
(increase by 100 μL) 301(100.0) 188(100.0) 80(100.0) 1.00(1.00-1.00) 0.143 33(100.0) 1.00(1.00-1.00) 0.422
Cervical lesion         
  No 251(83.4) 173(92.0) 57(71.3) 1.00   21(63.6) 1.00  
  Yes 50(16.6) 15(8.0) 23(28.8) 5.37(2.57-11.23) <0.001 12(36.4) 7.39(2.98-18.29) <0.001
  1. Statistically significant (p < 0.05) estimates are bolded and italicized. OR: Odds Ratio. 95%CI: Lower limits and upper limits of the 95% Confidence intervals. CIN, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. HPV, human papillomavirus. STI, sexually transmitted infection. ART, antiretroviral therapy.
  2. Carcinogenic HPV includes HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59 and 68.
  3. aNo carcinogenic HPV infection refers to absence of all 13 types of carcinogenic HPV.
  4. bOnly factors that were statistically significant (p < 0.05) in the unadjusted analysis were included in the multivariable-adjusted analysis.