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Table 1 Analysis of the clinical data for 423 hospitalized patients

From: Distribution of enteroviruses in hospitalized children with hand, foot and mouth disease and relationship between pathogens and nervous system complications

  general severely critically fatal p value Total
Case number (n) 189 197 28 9   423
Number of cases in which a pathogen was detected (n) 85(45.0%) 71(36%) 16(57.1%) 5(55.6%) 0.076 177(41.8%)
Age*(Years) 3.045 ± 2.102 2.546 ± 1.730 1.893 ± 1.397 2.056 ± 1.509 0.003  
Gender(male, n) 125(66.1%) 114(57.9%) 25(89.3%) 8(88.9%) 0.003 272(64.3%)
Region(from countryside, n) 116(61.4%) 124(62.9%) 23(82.1%) 5(55.6%) 0.185 268(63.4%)
Time from onset to hospitalization(d) 4.44 ± 1.37 3.89 ± 1.26 3.92 ± 1.02 3.81 ± 0.96 0.000  
Duration of hospitalization(d) 8.85 ± 2.46 11.63 ± 5.04 49.51 ± 33.20 4.55 ± 1.91 0.000  
WBC > 12 × 10 9 (n) 86(45.5%) 121(61.4%) 27(96.4%) 8(88.9%) 0.000 242(57.2%)
Duration of initial fever(d) 5.24 ± 1.54 6.33 ± 1.94 8.38 ± 6.42 6.42 ± 2.25 0.012  
Highest fever temperature (°C) 38.76 ± 0.46 38.846 ± 0.62 39.206 ± 0.51 39.07 ± 0.41 0.032  
Hand or foot rash (n) 173(91.5%) 183(92.9%) 23(82.1%) 6(66.7%) 0.017 385(91.0%)
Oral rash (n) 121(64.0%) 118(59.9) 17(74.6) 4(44.4%) 0.608 260(61.5%)
Buttock rash (n) 76(40.2%) 81(41.1%) 6(21.4%) 2(22.2%) 0.159 165(39.0)
No rash (n)    2(7.1%) 1(11.1%) 0.000 3(0.7%)
EV71 (n) 24(12.7%) 47(23.9%) 13(46.4%) 5(55.6%) 0.000 89(21%)
CA16 (n) 49(25.9%) 18(9.1%) 1©(3.6%) 0 0.000 68(16.1%)
Other enteroviruses (n) 12(6.3%) 6(3%) 2(7.1%) 0 0.369 20(4.7%)
Patients with neurological dysfunction upon discharge (n) 0 2®(1%) 11(39.3%)   0.000 13(3.1%)
  1. There is statistically significant difference between general group and the other 3 groups but no difference in comparison to the other 3 groups. There is statistically significant difference between all groups. There is no difference between general groups and severely group or critically group and fatal group, but there is significant difference between each one of the former and the latter two groups. # There was no repeat counting in calculating the distribution of disease types. When neurogenic pulmonary edema or shock and brain stem encephalitis coexisted in the same patient, the former was counted. When neurogenic shock and pulmonary edema coexisted, pulmonary edema was counted. §The denominator of the fraction represents the cases examined, whereas the numerator represents the number of patients with this abnormality. ¤Among the 5 fatal cases, 2 died of neurogenic pulmonary edema, 2 died of shock and 1 patient was declared brain-dead