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Table 5 TNF-α and IL-6 protein concentrations in MDCK culture supernatants (pg/ml) after 72 hr exposure

From: Attenuation of influenza virus infectivity with herbal-marine compound (HESA-A): an in vitro study in MDCK cells

  TNF-α IL-6
Treatment Concentration (Mean ± SD) Concentration (Mean ± SD)
Negative control 3.94 ± 0.01 2.33 ± 0.00
HESA-A 2.58 ± 0.00 1.33 ± 0.00
Virus 12.88 ± 0.00* 21.67 ± 0.01*
Co-penetration 0.45 ± 0.00 2.00 ± 0.00
Pre-penetration 3.03 ± 0.01 4.00 ± 0.00
Post-penetration 3.64 ± 0.00 5.00 ± 0.00
  1. Concentrations of TNF-α and IL-6 proteins, as determined by ELISA, are expressed as pg/ml (N = 6-8) after a 72 hr incubation time,
  2. *: significantly different from mock-inoculated and treated cells in different experiments (P < 0.05)