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Table 2 Hemagglutination assay results evaluating the antiviral activity of HESA-A against influenza virus A

From: Attenuation of influenza virus infectivity with herbal-marine compound (HESA-A): an in vitro study in MDCK cells

Treatment Mean ± SD
Virus sample 45.71 ± 15.83
Post-penetration 6.86 ± 11.65*
Pre-penetration 3.43 ± 5.83*
Co-penetration 0.57 ± 1.40*
  1. Values are averages of 4 independent HA assays
  2. *: Significantly different from values obtained for HESA-A-treated samples compared to untreated sample (p ≤ 0.05)