NDV HN protein levels in Vero cells infected with NDV and treated with fucoidan. Vero cells (3 × 105) were infected with NDV and treated with 100 μg/mL fucoidan at different times of infection. Lane 1, cellular control without NDV infection (CC); Lane 2, viral control without fucoidan treatment (VC), Lanes 3–7, cells infected with NDV and treated with fucoidan at 60 min before and 0, 15, 30, and 60 min after infection, respectively. Cells lysates were prepared, and equal amounts of protein extracts (40 μg) were subjected to immunoblot analysis to detect HN and GAPDH levels. The ratio of HN/GAPDH expression in the immunoblot analysis was quantified using Phoretix1D v2003.02 software.