Greensill, 2003
       
X(a)
 
X(a)
       
pediatric (30, ventilated and with bronchiolitis)

70% rates of coinfection RSVhMPV in a cohort of infants with bronchiolitis, suggesting that dual infection may predispose for a more severe disease.

Viazov, 2003
       
X(a)
 
(d)
       
children <2 years (63) with RTD

17,5% hMPV positive, 23% RSV positive, 4.7% hMPVRSV coinfections. Similar symptoms between hMPV+ and RSV+ children.

Esper, 2004
       
X(a)
         
children <5 years (688) negative for RSV, PIV, Flu A and B, ADV

8% hMPV positive samples

Xepapadaki, 2004
 
X(a)

X(a)

X(a)
  
X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)
   
pediatric (56) with acute bronchiolitis

16% bronchiolitis is hMPV positive, 67.9% RSV positive, without clinical d(d)ference.

Konig, 2004
       
X(a)
 
X(a)
       
children requiring intensive support (85)

coinfections with RSV and hMPV are more severe than infections with either RSV or hMPV alone in young children

Semple, 2005
       
X(a)
 
X(a)
       
<2yearold infants with bronchiolitis(196)

hMPV and RSV coinfection is associated with increased disease severity

van Woensel, 2006
       
X(b)
 
X(b)
       
pediatric (30, mean age 10 weeks, ventilated and with bronchiolitis)

No virus coinfection between RSV and hMPV in a cohort of infants with bronchiolitis

Foulongne, 2006
 
(d)

(d)
   
(d)

X(a)

(d)

(d)
       
589 children hospitalized with respiratory disease<5 years

8.5% rates of hMPV infections, the second leading cause of RTD after RSV, 30% of the cases are hMPVRSV coinfections. The duration of hospitalization and requirement for supplemental oxygen were increased in case of hMPVRSV coinfections

Lazar, 2004
       
X(a)
 
X(a)
       
46 children with mild to severe RSV disease (PIV, fluA and B, ADVnegative)

hMPV did not contribute to the severity of RSV disease

Canducci, 2008
       
X(a)
 
X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)
  
322 infant patients with acute respiratory disease

RSVhMPVs coinfections were observed in less severe respiratory disease when compared to RSV monoinfections

Chiu, 2005
 
(d)

(d)
   
(d)

X(a)

(d)

(d)

X(a)

X(a)

X(b)
    
hospitalized with fever and acute respiratory symptoms (587)

4.4% HCoV infections. HCoVNL63 can present as croup, asthma exacerbation, febrile seizures, and high fever.

van der Hoek,2006
 
X(a)

X(a)
   
X(a)
  
X(a)
  
X(b)
    
children<3 years with LRTIs (940)

HCoVNL63 RNA was detected in 5.2% of cases;43% of the HCoVNL63positive patients with high viral load and absence of coinfection suffered from croup. Most coinfections were with RSVA HCoVNL63 coinfection with RSVA occurred mainly in hospitalised patients in contrast to HCoVNL63 coinfections with PIV3 that were exclusively present in the outpatient group. Lower HCoVNL63 viral load in patients coinfected with RSV or PIV3 than in patients infected with HCoVNL63 alone

Dare, 2007
          
X(b)

X(b)

X(b)

X(b)
   
1156 patients with pneumonia, 513 outpatients, 281 controls

1.8% of patients with pneumonia, 2.3% of outpatients and 2.1% of controls had HCoV infections. In control patients, infection with any HCoV type or with all types combined was not associated with pneumonia

Kuypers, 2007
 
X(a)
    
X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(b)

X(b)

X(b)

X(b)
   
1043 pediatric (0–19 years old) respiratory specimens

CoVs were detected in 6.3% of specimens. 45.5% CoVpositive specimens also had another respiratory virus detected, most commonly RSV (67%). CoV subtypes NL63 and HKU1 accounted for the majority of CoVs detected.

Minosse, 2008
   
X(a)
    
X(a)
   
X(a)
    
hospitalized adult patients (433, mean age 56 years)

2% Hcov NL63 positive, 33% coinfected NL63HRV, 10% coinfected NL63ADV

Wu, 2008
       
X

X

X
  
X(b)
    
539 children < 15 years with respiratory disease

1.3% HCoV NL63 positive, 43% of HCoV infection are coinfections (RSV, ADV, hMPV)

Gaunt, 2010
 
X(b)

X(b)
   
X(b)
 
X(b)

X(b)

X(b)

X(b)

X(b)

X(b)
   
11661 respiratory samples

high rate of coinfections observed for HKU1, NL63 and OC43, mostly with RSV. No d(d)ferences of HCoV viral load were observed between single infection and RSV coinfection. Detection of CoVs should not be interpreted as representing an incidental infection without contribute to disease.

Choi, 2006
 
X(a) and (d)

X(a) and (d)

X(a)
  
X(a) and (d)

X(a)

X(a) and (d)

X(a) and (d)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)
 
X(a)
  
515 children< 5 years old with LRTIs

The prevalence of HboV was the second (11%), the first was RSV (23%). Among HBoV infections, a high rate (38%) was coinfection.

Allander, 2007
 
X(b), (c), (d), (e)

X(b), (c), (d), (e)

(c), (e), X(a)

(c), (e), X(a)
 
X(b), (c), (d), (e)

(c), X(a)

X(b), (d), (e)

(c), (d), (e), X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(b), (e)

X(b), (e)

X(b), (e)
  
259 children (median age, 1.6 years) who had been hospitalized for acute expiratory wheezing

Acute HBoV infections appears associated with presence of viral DNA in the blood as the HBoV DNA was reported more prevalent in the patients blood during the acute symptoms than after recovery. High load and viremic HBoV infection were associated with respiratory tract symptoms, while detection of a low viral load in the nasopharinx alone has uncertain relevance

Christensen, 2008
 
X(b)

X(b)

X(b)

X(b)
 
X(b)

X(b)

X(b)

X(b)

X(b)

X(b)

X(b)
 
X(b)
   
HBoV was detected in 12% of samples. It was the fourth most common virus in the material after RSV (25%), HRV (17%) and hMPV(14%). Multiple viral infections were common and were present in 78% of the samples, more commonly RSV

Dina, 2009
 
X(a)

X(a)

X(a)
  
X(a)

X(a)

(d), (c), X(b), x(a)
     
X(b), X(a)
  
842 patients hospitalized with respiratory symptoms (mean age 22 years)

The prevalence of HBoV infection was 3.8%. HBoV. Viral load appears to be linked to the severity of the disease.

Wang, 2010
 
X(a)

X(a)

X(a)
  
X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a),X(b), (e)
  
817 children with respiratory tract infection

HBoV was ident(d)ied in 12% of samples. Coinfection rate with other respiratory viruses was 51%. HBoV was found frequently in children with respiratory tract symptoms associated with other viruses, and persisted in the respiratory tract, in serum and urine. The presence of IgM was significantly more prevalent in viremic patients and those diagnosed with high load of HBoV DNAin nasal/throat swabs

Don, 2010
 
(e)

(e)
   
(e)

(e)

(e)

(e)
    
(e)
  
124 children with presumptive pneumonia<15 years

Mixed infections were found in 25% of cases. Serological evidence of acute HBoV infection was found in 12% of children with pneumonia and in more than half of cases with single HBoV infection.This suggests that HBoV may be a fairly common cause of pneumonia in children

SoderlundVenermo, 2009
 
X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)
 
X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a), (e), X (b)
  
259 weezing children <15 years, 115 healthy adults

Serologically confirmed primary HBoV infections detected in symptomatic children with no signs of other respiratory virus infections demonstrate that HBoV is a cause of acute wheezing in young children. Accurate HBoV diagnosis requires serologic analysis or PCR of serum, PCR of NPAs alone is insufficient. HBoV is the most probable cause of respiratory tract disease (d) the patients has single infection, a high viral load in NPA nasopharyngeal aspirates and viremia

Martin, 2010
 
X(a)

X(a)

X(a)
  
X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(b)
  
119 children attending daycare

28% tested positive for HBoV. HBoV was detected significantly more often than any of the 14 respiratory viruses but HRVs. HboV DNA can persist for several months in the respiratory tract

Jin, 2012
 
X(a)

X(a)

X(a)
  
X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)
  
X(a)

X(a)

X(a)
  
813 children<14 years with acute lower respiratory tract infections

The most frequently detected virus was RSV (40.%), followed by HRV (20%), HBoV (11.5%), PIV13 (8%), AdV (7.5%), FluA (7%), HMPV (6.%), NL63 (4%), HKU1 (2.%) and FluB (0.98%). Of the HCoVHKU1 and HCoVNL63positive samples, 74% were coinfected with at least another virus, most commonly HRV and RSV.

Esposito, 2012
 
X(a)

X(a)

X(b)

X(b)
 
X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)
  
592 children with radiographically confirmed pneumonia

HBoV was the most frequently detected virus(10%) after RSV (31%) and HRV (24%)

Le, 2007
 
X(a)

X(a)

X(a)
  
X(a)

X(a)

X(a)
 
X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)
 
X(b)
 
2,263 samples from children <4 years of age and 374 from children >4 years of age for routine respiratory virus detection

2.7% samples positive for WU polyomavirus and 71% coinfected with other viruses. WU polyomavirus was the sole virus detected in 20 specimens from patients with respiratory illness, which suggests that it may be a respiratory pathogen. Repeated identification of WU polyomavirus in the same patients suggests that it may persistently infect humans

Han, 2007
 
X(a)

X(a)

X(a)
  
X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)
 
486 children with acute lower respiratory tract, 72 asymptomatic children<6 years

WUPyV was detected in 7% children with LARD, 4.2% of asymptomatic children and as coinfection with other respiratory viruses in 67.6%. Although WUPyV was frequently detected, its clinical role has not been distinguished from that of coinfecting viruses

Bialasiewicz, 2008
 
X(a)

X(a)

X(a)
  
X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(b)

X(b)

X(b)

2866 respiratory sample from people with acute respiratory diseases (mean age 9.2 years)

KIV and WUV were found at a prevalence of 2.6% and 4.5%, respectively. Level of coinfection of KIV or WUV with other viruses was 74.7% and 79.7%, respectively. It is not possible to prove a causal relationship between the detection of KIV and WUV and respiratory disease from these findings

Neske, 2008
 
(d)

(d)
   
(d)
 
(d)
     
X(a)

X(a)
 
1,326 hospitalized children with acute respiratory diseases

4.9% positive WUPyV. 56% were coinfections with other viruses (ADV, fluA, hBoV and RSV).

BabakirMina, 2010
               
X(b)

X(b)

153 HIV1infected patients (mean age 42 years), 130 controls

2.6% KIPyV positive and 4.6% WUPyV positive among HIV1–infected patients compared with 3.1% KIPyV positive and 0,8% WUPyV positive in blood donors. No association found between CD4+ cell counts in HIV1 positive patients and infection with KIPyV or WUPyV

Debiaggi, 2010
 
X(a)

X(a)

X(a)
  
X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

31 asymptomatic adulthematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients;486 children with acute respiratory disease< 2 years

0.79% KIPyV, 0.79% WuPyV positive among transplant recipients; 1.4% KIPyV and 0.2% WUPyV in children. WU/KIPyVs have a low pathogenic potential in young children. Brief and asymptomatic infection can occur in hematopoietic transplant recipients.

Zhuang, 2011
 
X(b)

X(b)

X(b)
  
X(b)

X(b)

X(b)

X(b)
    
X(b)

X(a)
 
771 children with acute respiratory tract infection and 82 samples from healthy subjects

In most of infected children single WUPyV infection was detected.It suggests that the newly described polyomavirus can cause acute respiratory tract infection

Rao, 2011
 
X(a)

X(a)

X(a)
  
X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)
 
X(b)

X(b)

pediatric hematology or oncology patients and immunocompetent controls with acute respiratory illnesses

Prevalence of WUPyV and KIPyV is similar in hematology/oncology patients (3% and 5.6%, respectively) compared with the general pediatric population (5%and 2.3, respectively). High codetection rates with other viruses (RSV and HRV) in both groups. Higher viral loads for KIPyV (but not for WUPyV) in the immunocompromised group was detected and infection with either virus occurred in older children compared with controls, which may suggest viralreactivation

Lau, 2007
 
(d)

(d)

X(a)
  
(d)

X(a)

(d)

(d)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)
   
203 nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs), negative for common respiratory viruses from hospitalized children

HRVC is an important cause of febrile wheeze and asthmatic exacerbations in children requiring hospitalization. No clear clinical difference has been noted between single or mixed HRVC infections

Harvala, 2008
 
X(a)

X(a)
  
X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)
    
X(a)
  
4,173 respiratory samples for routine respiratory virus detection

High rate of coinfections, ow frequency of detection and lack of clear disease associations indicate that HPeV1 and −6 are not major pathogens in individuals presenting with respiratory disease

Jin, 2009
 
X(a)

X(a)

X(a)
  
X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)
  
406 children< 14 years with RTI

13% HRV positive (22% HRVA, 12% HRVB, 19% HRVC). Monoinfection was observed in more than half of cases, HRVC is an important cause of RTIs in children. Patients infected with HRVC may exhibit different clinical features from patients infected with HRVA/B

Miller, 2009
   
X(a)
             
1052 hospitalized children< 5 years with acute respiratory illness

HRVCs were detected in 7% of children hospitalized for fever or respiratory conditions and constituted almost half of all HRVsassociated hospitalizations, suggesting that this novel group causes a substantial burden of pediatric disease

Yozwiak, 2010
    
X(a)
            
3,800 children aged 2 to 13 years with respiratory illness

EV109 isolates were then detected in 1.6% of respiratory samples of children with influenza like illness (ILI) and recognized to have a pathogenetic role in the illness

Debiaggi, 2012
 
X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)
 
X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

1149 nasopharingeal aspirates

HEV109 infection may be associated to ARDs both in infants and in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients

Piralla, 2012
 
X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(b)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

3,525 patients with respiratory syndrome

The prevalence of HpeV is 0.4%. The most commonly identified HPeVs were HpeV1(58%) and HpeV3 (37%). Although not circulating at high frequency and unlikely to cause respiratory syndrome, HPeV was associated with severe clinical syndromes in a minority of newborns. The frequent association of HPeV with other respiratory viruses may indicate a less pathogenic role for HPeV compared to the other viruses

Renois, 2010

X(a)

X(a) and X(b)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)
 
X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)
   
X(a)
  
56 adults and 39 children visited for influenzalike illnesses

31% of H1N1 infections, 16% coinfected with HRV (60%) and RSV, CoV229E, HBoV (20%). No difference in disease severity between single and mixed infections

Casalegno, 2010

X(b)
  
X(b)
             
pediatric (2121, mean age 3.8 years)

The presence of HRV reduce the risk of H1N1 infection.

Schnepf, 2011

X(b)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)
  
X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)

X(a)
    
in adult and paediatric patients with Influenzalike illness (413)

16% of H1N1 infections, 19% of them were coinfections (mainly HRV). Among 50% of nonH1N1 infections were HRV infections and increase of H1N1 cases was associated with rapid HRV infection decline
