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Table 1 Microbial translocation and immunological outcomes in different populations of HIV-infected patients (from all the selected articles included in this review)

From: The role of lipopolysaccharide as a marker of immune activation in HIV-1 infected patients: a systematic literature review

  LPS plasma values compared to healthy donors Main immunological outcomes
Untreated HIV + patients ++++ Chronic CD4 + T cell death, potential risk of accelerated disease progression
HIV + elite controllers +++ Unknown
HIV + successfully treated patients +/= Potential risk of for blunted CD4+ T cell gain. Only maximal virological suppression (< 2.5 cp/ml) allows normalisation of LPS values
HIV + on treatment, with persistent viral replication ++ Potential risk of blunted CD4+ T cell gain, to a higher extent than for patients with viral control
  1. Elite controllers: viral load < 75 cp/ml without the effect of cART.
  2. Successfully treated patients: viral load < 40 cp/ml on cART.
  3. Patients with viral replication: viral load > 40 cp/ml, on cART.