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Table 1 Demographic characteristics and laboratory parameters of the study groups; normal, chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)

From: Chronic hepatitis c genotype-4 infection: role of insulin resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma

Variables Control
N = 20
CHC
N = 50
HCC
N = 50
*P-value
Age (Mean ± SD) 34.1 ± 9.74 55.04 ± 9.58 58.8 ± 9.66 0.14
Sex     
Male: n = 69 8 30 31  
Female: n = 51 12 20 19  
M:F ratio 01:00.6 01:01.5 01:01.6 0.838
Obesity N(%) 8 (40%) 22 (44%) 20 (40%) 0.685
LFT     
Median (Range)     
ALT (IU/L) 29 (20-41) 60 (25-210) 64(34-103) 0.09
AST (IU/L) 31 (18-40) 60 (25-180) 120 (65-310) <0.001
T. Bil (mg/dL) 0.8 (0.4-1) 1 (0.5-3.6) 2.2 (1.2-6) <0.001
Albumin (g/dL) 3.9 (3.5-4.7) 3.6(1.9-4.2) 3 (1.6-3.4) <0.001
INR 0.8 (0.7-0.9) 1.1(0.7-1.5) 1.2(1.1-1.5) <0.001
GGT (IU/L) 29 (12-46) 56.5 (15-105) 190 (60-560) <0.001
Biochemical tests     
Median(range),     
Fasting Glu (mg/dL) 99(80-142) 170(100-230) 188(76-890) 0.81
Fasting Ins (IU/mL) 3.6(2-5.3) 8(3.5-13.0) 9(3.6-15) 0.178
HbA1c (% ) 4.2(2.7-6) 7(3.2-11.0) 8(4.2-13) 0.053
HOMA-IR 0.87(0.42-1.49) 3.42 (0.86-7.06) 4.18 (0.91-32.22) 0.643
Plt (x109/L) 300(152-465) 150(102-300) 130(50-170) <0.001
Cholesterol (mg/dL) 157(120-247) 190(160-270) 190(110-300) 0.954
TG (mg/dL) 153(125-254) 190(87-300) 190(120-300) 0.999
Serum AFP (ng/mL) 6 (2.9-10) 30 (5-125) 225 (150-1060) <0.001
HCV RNA     
(viral load copies/IU/L) N(%) no viremia    
Low** (n = 21)     
Moderate (n = 56)   19(38) 2(4) <0.001
High (n = 23)   21(42) 35(70)  
Stage of Fibrosis N(%)   10(20) 13(26)  
I+II (n = 17)   16 (32) 1(2) <0.001
III+IV+ V (n = 83)   34 (68) 49(98)  
  1. Data are median (range), frequency (%); obesity defined as BMI>25; *P value: comparison between CHC and HCC patients. LFT, Liver function tests, ALT, alanine aminotransferase; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; INR, International normalization ratio (for blood clotting); GGT, gammaglutamyl transferase; Glu, glucose; Ins, insulin; HbA1c, glycosylated hemoglobin; HOMA-IR, Homeostasis Model for assessment of insulin resistance; Plt, platelet count; TG, triglycerides; AFP, alpha fetoprotein; **Viral load (copies/IU/L): Low (< 100 × 103), Moderate (100-1000 × 103), High (>1000 × 103)