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Table 2 Characteristics of study subjects analyzed for cytokines and clinical chemistrya

From: Emerging trends in Lassa fever: redefining the role of immunoglobulin M and inflammation in diagnosing acute infection

Characteristic LF F (N = 25) LF NF (N = 19) NL FI IgM+ (N = 21)
Age < 15 yrs 11 (44) 5 (26) 6 (30) †
  15 - 40 yrs 14 (56) 10 (53) 10 (50)†
  > 40 yrs 0 (0) 4 (21) 4 (20)†
Gender Male 12 (48) 7 (37) 6 (29)
  Female 13 (52) 12 (63) 15 (71)
Duration of illness < 3 days 18 (72) 1 (5)b* 2 (11)†d*
  ≥ 3 days 7 (28) 18 (95) 16 (89)†
Major Signs Fever 24 (100) † 19 (100) 17 (94)†
  Bleeding 9 (36) 2 (11)c 1 (6)†e*
  Head swelling 7 (28) 4 (21) 1 (6)†
  Conjunctivitis 5 (20) 5 (26) 1 (6)†
  1. a All results expressed as frequency (%), unless noted otherwise. Odds ratios (ORs) and their associated 95% confidence intervals were calculated using ordinary logistic regression.
  2. b Odds of fatal outcome in LF F versus LF NF for the interval between date of admission and date of death or discharge is 46.3 (5.2, 415.6), which is significant.
  3. c Odds of fatal outcome in LF F versus LF NF for the presence versus absence of bleeding symptoms is 5.1 (0.9, 27.4), which is not significant.
  4. d Odds of fatal outcome in LF F versus NL FI IgM+ for the interval between date of admission and date of death or discharge is 14.4 (2.48, 80.68), which is significant.
  5. e Odds of fatal outcome in LF F versus NL FI IgM+ for the presence versus absence of bleeding symptoms is 9.56 (1.09, 84.24), which is significant.
  6. † Data unavailable for all observations.
  7. * Significant at the 5% significance level.
  8. The characteristics of three groups were compared based on antigen status and death. Ag+ LF patients were separated into two groups based on survival status. Age, gender and all but one of the major signs of LF appeared not to impact survival rates in LASV Ag+ patients. Odds ratio for duration of illness, however, was significantly different at the 5% significance level between those who survived LF and those who succumbed. Additionally, each LF group was compared to individuals who were suffering from a febrile illness that could not be definitively diagnosed as LF based on an Ag-IgM+ profile. There were no significant differences between LF NF and NL FI IgM+ groups amongst the various characteristics examined. Significant differences arose between LF F and NL FI IgM+ groups for duration of illness and bleeding. Ultimately, for both comparison groups, if individuals survived past day three after admission and initiation of treatment then their chances of survival increased significantly (OR = at least 5.2, statistically significant between LF F vs. LF NF; OR = at least 2.48, statistically significant between LF F vs. NL FI IgM+). Additionally, Ag+ patients who presented with bleeding symptoms were more likely to succumb (OR not statistically significant between LF F vs. LF NF; OR = at least 1.09, statistically significant between LF F vs. NL FI IgM+).