Mutants of the region II of Erythrocyte Binding Proteins. Panel A. P. vivax DBP region II is shown in blue with conserved cysteines C1, C4, C5, C6 and C12 shown. Deletion mutants in the are shown with the V3-like peptide (amino acids 216-247, between C1-C4) highlighted in red. Primers flanking this site, facing outward, were used to create pv22d32 (delete 32 amino acids) by inverse PCR. The other mutants were created with primers facing inward and containing restriction enzyme sites. Percent binding is expressed as number of rosettes compared to pHVDR22. Panel B. Site directed mutagenesis using the Stratagene QuickChange kit was used to make alanine substitutions within the consensus heparin binding site of the V3-like peptide (R22KARA, R22KA), or another consensus site (R22KAKA) at amino acids 364-373, between conserved cysteines C5-C6. Panel C. Site directed mutagenesis was used to created the same KARA mutation in the conserved heparin binding site between C1-C4 of the P. knowlesi α, β and γ proteins.