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Figure 4 | Virology Journal

Figure 4

From: Effect of ultrasound on herpes simplex virus infection in cell culture

Figure 4

Effect of ultrasound intensity, duty cycle, and exposure time on the formation of plaques by HSV-1. (A) Vero cells were inoculated with 100 PFU of R849 and incubated for 30 min. Thereafter, cell monolayers were exposed to ultrasound in the presence or absence of microbubbles. The duty cycle and exposure time were fixed to 10% and 20 sec, and the ultrasound intensity was changed from 0.5 to 2.0 W/cm2, according to Sonitron intensity dial settings. After further incubation, the number of plaques was determined and the rate relative to the control was calculated. (B) The morphology of the control and cells exposed to ultrasound at an output intensity of 2.0 W/cm2 in the presence of microbubbles. (C) R849-infected Vero cells were exposed to ultrasound and the number of plaques was determined as described in (A). The output intensity and exposure time were fixed to 0.5 W/cm2 and 20 sec and the duty cycle was changed from 5 to 50%. (D) R849-infected Vero cells were exposed to ultrasound and the number of plaques was determined as described in (A). The output intensity and duty cycle were fixed to 0.5 W/cm2 and 20% and the duty cycle was changed from 5 to 40 sec. Data are means ± SDs of three determinations. *P < 0.05 vs. control.

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