Aqueous P. vulgaris extracts inhibit early post-binding events in the HIV-1 life cycle. HIV-1 NL4-3 was bound to HeLa37 cells for 2 hours at 4°C. Unbound virus was removed and the cells were refreshed with warmed media containing noted amounts of aqueous extract. Infections were maintained for an additional 40 hours, fixed and immunostained for HIV antigens. Data are represented as the percent of control wells that did not have extract added. Shown are the mean and standard error of the mean for each time point and studies were performed in triplicate three independent times.