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Table 1 Clinical and pathological findings during the two outbreaks.

From: Encephalomyocarditis virus infection in an Italian zoo

Species Sex Death date Clinical signs Gross pathology EMCV investigation results
Lemur catta n.r. ° 15-10-06 Sudden death No gross lesions were observed Pos
Lemur catta m 20-10-06 Lack of coordination Pericardic haemorrhages, pulmonary emphysema and oedema, meningeal congestion Pos
Lemur catta m 4-11-06 Sudden death Sero-haemorrhagic thoracic fluid, pulmonary oedema, catharral enteritis, pericardic haemorrhages, cardiomegaly, whitish necrotic foci, pulmonary emphysema, ascites, abdominal organs congestion, mild liver hyperaemia, meningeal congestion Pos
Eulemur macaco macaco m 17-11-06 Anorexia, sensory depression Very severe pulmonary oedema Pos
Eulemur albifrons m 27-11-06 Sudden death Diffuse pulmonary edema, sero-haemorrhagic thoracic fluid, pericardic haemorrhages, pulmonary emphysema, meningeal congestion, catharral enteritis Pos
Eulemur albifrons m 16-12-06 Lethargy, sensory depression Thoracic fluid, severe pulmonary edema, cardiomegaly, presence of nematodes (Trichuris spp.) in the stomach, sero-haemorrhagic thoracic fluid, pericardic haemorrhages, pulmonary emphysema, meningeal congestion Pos
Macaca sylvanus m 27-12-06 Sudden death Mild pulmonary oedema Pos
Varecia variegata rubra n.r. 27-12-06 Sudden death Mild pulmonary oedema, evident cardiomegaly and grey-white necrotic foci of the myocardium Pos
Macaca sylvanus n.r. 30-12-06 Sudden death Necrosis of the posterior fingers and partial necrosis of anterior fingers, marginal lobular pulmonary haemorrhages, evident cardiomegaly, abundant hydropericardium Neg
Macaca sylvanus n.r. 05-01-07 Sudden death No gross lesions were observed Pos
Callithrix jacchus m 16-01-07 Sudden death Lymphomegaly, kidney pallor, epathomegaly, cardiomegaly and grey-white necrotic foci of the myocardium, pulmonary oedema, ascite Pos
Callithrix jacchus f 19-01-07 Sudden death Mild pulmonary oedema Neg
Varecia variegata rubra f 21-01-07 Sudden death Thoracic fluid, evident pulmonary oedema, cardiomegaly and grey-white necrotic foci of the myocardium Pos
Varecia variegata rubra n.r. 02-02-07 Sudden death Mild pulmonary oedema and grey-white necrotic foci of the myocardium Pos
Macaca sylvanus n.r. 07-02-07 Sudden death Catharral enteritis, presence of nematodes (Strongiloides spp.) in the small intestine Pos
Varecia variegata rubra m 23-09-08 Sudden death Pulmonary oedema and grey-white necrotic foci of the myocardium Pos
Varecia variegata rubra m 04-11-08 Sensory depression Pulmonary oedema and grey-white necrotic foci of the myocardium Pos
Varecia variegata rubra f 06-11-08 Sudden death Pulmonary oedema and grey-white necrotic foci of the myocardium pos
  1. °n.r. = not reported