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Table 3 EBV DNA loads in various EBV-associated disease states and immunocompromised individuals.

From: Measurement of Epstein-Barr virus DNA load using a novel quantification standard containing two EBV DNA targets and SYBR Green I dye

Group Patient ID Sex/Age Condition Specimen
(Positive/n Tested)
Target Detectable EBV DNA Load (copies/ml) Clinical Notes
1. A. M/46y PTLD Plasma (5/6) EBNA-1 Day +32 - 8.0 × 102 MUD HSCT for AML; EBV VCA IgG positive pre-Tx; Plasma collected on Days +32, +39, +46, +60, +75 and +81 for EBV QPCR; Plasma EBV (qualitative) PCR positive on Days +75, +78 and +81; Treatment with Foscarnet and Rituximab after Day +75; Died of pneumonia on Day +88
       Day +46 - 1.0 × 103  
       Day +60 - 8.8 × 103  
       Day +75 - 1.1 × 106  
       Day +81 - 2.3 × 105  
     CSF (2/2) EBNA-1 Day +75 - 1.3 × 106 CSF collected on Days +75 and +78
       Day +78 - 2.7 × 106  
  B. M/42y PTLD Whole Blood (1/5) EBNA-1 Day +95 - 2.0 × 107 MUD HSCT for AML; Plasma EBV (qualitative) PCR positive Day +96; Plasma collected on Day +95 for EBV QPCR; Died on Day +99 due to multi-organ failure
  C. F/59y PTLD Plasma (3/6) EBNA-1 Day +45 - 2.2 × 105 MUD HSCT for AML; CMV reactivation on Day +44, Treatment with Foscarnet and ganciclovir on Day +52; Plasma collected Days +38, +40, +45, +52 and +59; Died on Day +66; EBV VCA IgG positive, HHV6 IgG positive and CMV IgG positive pre-Tx
       Day +52 - 9.6 × 103  
       Day +59 - 3.0 × 105  
     Whole Blood (1/8) EBNA-1 Day +46 - 6.6 × 104 EDTA collected Days +3, +5, +10, +17, +26, +31, +33, +46
  D. M/48y PTLD Plasma (4/6) EBNA-1 Day +40 - 3.4 × 103 MUD HSCT for AML; EBV VCA IgG positive pre-Tx; Plasma collected Days +28, +33, +40, +47, +54, +61; Plasma EBV (qualitative) PCR negative on Day +62; Died Day +72 of multi-organ failure
       Day +47 - 3.6 × 104  
       Day +54 - 3.4 × 106  
       Day +61 - 6.3 × 106  
     Whole Blood (2/2) EBNA-1 Day +62 - 1.3 × 108 EDTA collected Days +62 and +63.
       Day +63 - 1.8 × 107  
  E. F/57y PTLD Whole Blood (1/5) EBNA-1 9.5 × 104 No serology results available however clinical notes indicate EBV reactivation; Plasma EBV (qualitative) PCR positive 9-16 days after VL testing done; negative at 1-7 months thereafter.
2. F. Unknown IM Plasma (1/1) EBNA-1 3.7 × 104 EBV VCA IgM positive
      BHRF-1 1.6 × 104  
  G. Unknown IM Plasma (0/1) EBNA-1 0 EBV VCA IgM positive
      BHRF-1 0  
  H. Unknown IM Plasma (1/1) EBNA-1 7.6 × 103 EBV VCA IgM positive
      BHRF-1 1.5 × 103  
  I. Unknown IM Plasma (1/1) EBNA-1 2.3 × 103 EBV VCA IgM positive
      BHRF-1 8.7 × 104  
  J. M/17y IM Whole Blood (1/1) EBNA-1 1.0 × 105 EBV VCA IgM positive
      BHRF-1 1.8 × 103  
  K. F/19y IM Whole Blood (1/1) EBNA-1 2.2 103 EBV VCA IgM positive
      BHRF-1 5.6 × 104  
  L. F/53y IM Whole Blood (1/1) EBNA-1 2.0 × 105 EBV VCA IgM positive; acute glandular fever
      BHRF-1 1.8 × 104  
3. M. M/36y EBVAHS Whole Blood (1/1) EBNA-1 7.5 × 104 EBV (qualitative) PCR positive; died of EBVAHS
      BHRF-1 1.1 × 105  
4. N. Unknown HIV Plasma (1/1) EBNA-1 0 HIV plasma VL 324, 000 RNA copies/ml
      BHRF-1 1.0 × 103  
  O. Unknown HIV Plasma (0/1) EBNA-1, 0 HIV plasma VL 13, 000 RNA copies/ml
      BHRF-1 0  
  P. Unknown HIV Plasma (0/1) EBNA-1, 0 HIV plasma VL 26, 800 RNA copies/ml
      BHRF-1 0  
  Q. Unknown HIV Plasma (0/1) EBNA-1, 0 HIV plasma VL 21, 300 RNA copies/ml
      BHRF-1 0  
  R. Unknown HIV Plasma (0/1) EBNA-1, 0 HIV plasma VL 12, 700 RNA copies/ml
      BHRF-1 0  
  S. Unknown HIV Plasma (0/1) EBNA-1, 0 HIV plasma VL 1, 040, 000 RNA copies/ml
      BHRF-1 0  
  T. Unknown HIV Plasma (0/1) EBNA-1, 0 HIV plasma VL 17, 700 RNA copies/ml
      BHRF-1 0  
  U. Unknown HIV Plasma (0/1) EBNA-1, 0 HIV plasma VL 47, 500 RNA copies/ml
      BHRF-1 0  
  V. Unknown HIV Plasma (1/1) EBNA-1 5.6 × 103 HIV plasma VL 16, 400 RNA copies/ml
      BHRF-1 3.0 × 103  
  W. Unknown HIV PBMC (1/1) EBNA-1 < 2.0 × 102 HIV PBMC VL 12, 800 RNA copies/ml
      BHRF-1 < 2.0 × 102  
  X. Unknown HIV PBMC (1/1) EBNA-1 < 2.0 × 102 HIV PBMC VL 12, 700 RNA copies/ml
      BHRF-1 0  
  Y. Unknown HIV PBMC (0/1) EBNA-1, 0 HIV PBMC VL 118, 000 RNA copies/ml
      BHRF-1   
  1. Abbreviations: Y, years; Group 1 (PTLD), post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease; Group 2 (IM), infectious mononucleosis; Group 3 (EBVAHS), Epstein-Barr virus associated-haemophagocytic syndrome; Group 4 (HIV infection), human immunodeficiency virus; EDTA, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid; CSF, cerebrospinal fluid; PBMC, peripheral blood mononuclear cells; EBNA-1, Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-1; BHRF-1, BamHI fragment H rightward open reading frame-1; ml, millilitres; Bold lettering indicates Day QPCR positive post-transplant; AML, acute myeloid leukaemia; MUD; matched unrelated donor; HSCT, haematopoietic stem cell transplantation; CMV, cytomegalovirus; VCA, viral capsid antigen; Ig, immunoglobulins; EA-D, early antigen-diffuse; EA-R, early antigen-restricted; VL, viral load