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Table 2 Interaction of EF with viral HA

From: Anti-viral properties and mode of action of standardized Echinacea purpurea extract against highly pathogenic avian Influenza virus (H5N1, H7N7) and swine-origin H1N1 (S-OIV)

    μg/ml EF 1 hour μg/ml EF 4 hours
IV
strain
Pos.
Ctrl.
Neg.
Ctrl.
50 100 200 400 800 50 100 200 400 800
S-OIV (H1N1) + - - - - - - - - - - -
KAN-1 (H5N1) + - + + + - - - - - - -
FPV (H7N7) + - + + + - - - - - - -
  1. +: indicates hemagglutinin activity (agglutination of erythrocytes)
  2. -: indicates no hemagglutin activity. Ctrl, control
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