Detection of NiV (a) and HeV (b) via end-point titration, Taqman PCR and immunodetection. 1/2 log dilutions of virus (100 μl) were incubated with 20,000 Vero cells per well for 24 h at 37°C and 5% CO2. Virus released into the media was quantified by end-point titration and TCID50/ml (n = 3) determined using the Reed-Meunch method . Monolayers were either fixed with methanol, air dried and immunostained with anti-NiV-nucleoprotein polyclonal antisera as previously described  or viral RNA was extracted from cells (n = 3) and Taqman PCR was used to quantitative the relative expression of the N gene [17, 23]. S/N, signal:noise ratios calculated as signal/background values (n = 15). Values are expressed as the mean +/- S.E.