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Table 1 Summary of properties of identified HIV-1 resistant cellular genes

From: Identification of novel host-oriented targets for Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 using Random Homozygous Gene Perturbation

Target genes Main known function Cellular localization C'# Perturbation siRNA validation
CASD1 CAS1 domain-containing protein 1 precursor O-acetyl-transferase Multi-pass membrane protein 7 Antisense intron 4 Down-regulation Yes
HECW2 HECT, C2 and WW domain-containing protein 2 NEDD4-like E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase 2 Intracellular 2 Sense intron15 ATG(sc) exon 7 Down-regulation (DN) Yes
ROBO1 roundabout protein homolog 1 axon guidance receptor and cell adhesion receptor Type I membrane protein 3 Sense intron 3 ATG(sc) exon 3 Down-regulation (DN) Yes
NLGN1 member of the neuroligin family splice site-specific ligands for beta-neurexins and may be involved in the formation and remodeling of central nervous system synapses Neuronal cell surface 3 Antisense intron 3 Down-regulation Yes
DZIP3 (DAZ-interacting protein 3) E3 Ubiquitin ligase proteins. Specifically bind RNA. Also called huRUL138 (RNA-binding ubiquitin ligase of 138 kDa) Intracellular 3 Antisense intron 1 Down-regulation Yes
CAMSAP1L1 calmodulin regulated spectrin-associated protein may be involved in spectrin's function as a cytoskeletal protein providing a scaffolding and maintenance of plasma membrane Membrane 1 Antisense intron 2 Down-regulation Yes
GSTCD glutathione S-transferase (GST), C-terminal domain structural domain of GST, which conjugates reduced glutathione to a variety of targets to facilitate detoxification of the targets Intracellular 4 Antisense intron 5 Down-regulation Yes
CPSF1 Cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor It recognizes the AAUAAA signal in the pre-mRNA and facilitates both RNA cleavage and polyA synthesis Nucleus 8 Antisense intron 2 Down-regulation Yes
GDAP2 ganglioside induced differentiation associated protein 2 a signal transduction pathway during neuronal development Intracellular 1 Sense last exon Down-regulation (DN) Yes
TNRC6A trinucleotide repeat containing 6 protein post-transcriptional gene silencing through the RNAi and microRNA pathways. Cytoplasmic bodies 16 Sense intron 4 ATG(sc) exon 1 Down-regulation (DN) Yes
TTC21B tetratricopeptide repeat domain 21B may negatively modulate SHH (Sonic Hedgehog) signal transduction and may play a role in retrograde intraflagellar transport in cilia Intracellular 2 Antisense intron 4 Down-regulation Yes
ATP8A1 aminophospholipid transporter (APLT), Class I, type 8A, member 1 transport of aminophospholipids from the outer to the inner leaflet of various membranes and the maintenance of asymmetric distribution of phospholipids, mainly in secretory vesicles Membrane 4 Sense intron 4 ATG(sc) exon 1 Down-regulation (DN) Yes
Unknown ESTs BE066906, AW817767, EB388641 unknown 3 Sense n.d.
  AW300614 unknown 2 Antisense n.d.
  1. Symbols, gene families and the currently main known functions are shown for each identified gene. C# indicates the chromosome number of each target gene locates. The disruption effects upon GSV integration (orientation and integrated sites in host genes) are also listed. In order to determine the possible effects of sense integration on host gene expression, locations of the translation start codon (ATG(sc)) are also indicated. Down-regulation of gene expression is expected for the targeted genes through anti-sense inhibition. Dominant Negative (DN) effects are also anticipated from the targeted genes with over-expression of a truncated host protein when GSV inserts downstream of the start codon ATG in the sense orientation. GenBank Access numbers and the disruption effects of GSV integration are also shown for the two unknown ESTs. "n.d." stands for "not done".