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Table 3 Non-synonymous/synonymous substitution ratio for H3N2 and H1N1 isolates sampled in Denmark from 1999 to 2006*

From: The evolution of human influenza A viruses from 1999 to 2006: A complete genome study

Gene dN/dS
  H3N2 H1N1a
HA 0.23 0.18
HA1 0.53 0.21
HA2 0.11 0.08
NA 0.25 0.17
PB2 0.06 Na
PB1b 0.07 Na
PA 0.08 Na
NP 0.08 Na
M1 0.07 Na
M2 0.38 Na
NS1 0.23 Na
NS2 0.19 Na
  1. * dN/dS is the ratio of nonsynonymous vs. synonymous substitutions calculated by SLAC likelihood analysis.
  2. a The internal genes of H1N1 viruses were not included due to the few sequences available (Na). H3 n = 204, N2 n = 166, internal genes n = 15, H1 n = 27, N1 n = 30.
  3. b dN/dS for PB1-F2 was not included because the method used was biased by the PB1-F2 +1 reading frame from PB1. Synonymous substitutions in PB1 would therefore be assigned as non-synonymous in PB1-F2 not reflecting positive selection on the PB1-F2 itself.