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Table 3 Summary of AES incidence rates in the selected studies

From: The incidence of acute encephalitis syndrome in Western industrialised and tropical countries

Study (Publication Year) Year of Study Setting Country Western (W)/Tropical (T) Study Design Longitudinal (L) Prospective (P)/Retrospective (R)/ Ages Incidence per 100,000 population
Klemola et al (1965), Kaeaeriaeinen et al(1964)[5, 6] 1945–1963 Finland (W) L All ages 2 to 3
Beghi et al. (1984)[4] 1950–1981 USA (W) P All ages 7.4
Henrich et al. (2003)[35] 1993–1998 Thailand (T) P All ages 6.34
Pedersen (1956)[37] 1952–54 Jutland (W) R All ages 6.75–9.25**
Nicolosi (1986)[36] 1950–1981 USA (W) R All ages 7.4
Ponka et al. (1982)[13] 1980 Finland (W) R All ages 3.5
Khetsuriani et al. 2002)[18] 1988 – 1997 USA (W) R All ages 7.3
Khetsuriani et al. (2007)[34] 1988–1997 USA (W) R All ages 0.51–0.53*(deaths)
Kamei et al. (2000)[17] 1989–1991 Japan (T) R All ages 1.77 *(± 0.32)
Davison et al. (2003)[20] 1989–1998 England (W) R All ages (children <17 yrs) 1.5 (2.8 in children) (1.1 in adults)
Trevejo (2004)[19] 1990–1999 USA (W) R All ages 4.3 (CI 4.2–4.4)
Mailles et al. 2007)[21] 2000–2002 France (W) R All ages 1.9
Rantalaiho et al. (2001)[7] 1967–1991 Finland (W) L Adults ≥ 15 yrs 1.4
Radhakrishnan et al. (1987)[38] 1983–1984 Libya (T) P Adults >15 yrs 1
Nwosu et al. (2001)[33] 1991–1993 Nigeria (T) P Adults ≥ 16 yrs 0.9
Kupila et al. (2006)[9] 1999–2003 Finland (W) P Adults ≥ 16 yrs 2.2
Koskiniemi et al. (1991)[8, 10] 1968–1987 Finland (W) L Children 1 mths-6 yrs 8.3 (range 19.8 in 1974 to 2.5 in 1986 and 1987)
Rantakallio et al. (1986) 1966–1972 Finland (W) P Children <14 yrs (1966 birth cohort) 12.6
Koskiniemi et al. (1997)[11] 1993–1994 Finland (W) P Children 1 mths-15 yrs 10.5
Ilias et al. (2006)[14] 2000–2004 Greece (W) P Children <14 yrs 13.8**
Wang et al. (1981)[40] 1972–1980 Canada (W) R Children ≤ 16 yrs 8.2**
Rantala & Uhari (1989)[12] 1973–1987 Finland (W) R Children <16 yrs 8.8
Wong et al. (1987)[41] 1975–1986 Hong Kong (T) R Children <14 yrs 14.25**
Cizman et al. (1993)[15] 1979–1991 Slovenia (W) R Children 1 mths-15 yrs 6.7 (range 2.37–12.6)
Ishikawa et al. (1993)[16] 1984–1990 Japan (T) R Children <15 yrs 3.3
  1. * Incidence converted to/100,000, ** incidence calculated from data in paper. Yrs Years. Mths Months, P prospective, R retrospective, L Longitudinal, CI confidence interval. Studies covering all ages are listed first followed by adult studies and then paediatric studies. Within each section the studies are ordered by type; longitudinal, then prospective and then retrospective studies.