Skip to main content

Table 1 Summary of the mutations introduced into the rHPIV1 genomea.

From: Attenuation and efficacy of human parainfluenza virus type 1 (HPIV1) vaccine candidates containing stabilized mutations in the P/C and L genes

Gene Mutationb ORF nt changes wt → mutantc Type of mutation Codon position Amino acid change # nt changes for reversion to wt
P/C R84G C A GA → G GA point 84 R → G 1
   P GA G → GG G point 87 E → G 1
  Δ170d C AGG GAT TT C → AGC deletion 168–170 RDF → S (D deletion; 3 nt deletions in the flanking R-F codons results in a S substitution) 6 (insertions)d
   P GGA TTT→ deletion deletion 172–173 GF deletion 6 (insertions)
HN T553A HN A CC → G CC point 553 T → A 1
L Y942Ae L TATGCG point 942 Y → A 3e
  Δ1710–11d L GCT GAG→ deletion deletion 1710–11 AE deletion 6 (insertions)d
  1. a HPIV1 strain Washington/1964, GenBank accession no. NC_003461.
  2. b The nomenclature used to describe each mutation indicates the wt amino acid, the codon position and the new amino acid, or the position of the deletion (Δ), with respect to the C, HN or L protein.
  3. c The nucleotides (nt) affected by substitution or deletion are shown underlined and in bold type.
  4. d Designed for increased genetic stability by use of a deletion. Deletions involved six nt to conform to the rule of six [20].
  5. e Designed for increased genetic stability by the use of a codon that differs by three nucleotides from codons yielding a wild type assignment.