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Table 1 Major characteristics of diarrheal diseases associated with bacterial and NSP4 viral enterotoxins.

From: How do the rotavirus NSP4 and bacterial enterotoxins lead differently to diarrhea?

  Bacterial enterotoxins: Vibrio cholerae and Escherichia coli Viral enterotoxin: NSP4 produced by rotavirus
Morphological damage No No
D-glucose absorption via SGLT1 Unimpaired Impaired
Cl- absorption at the villus cell level Decreased Increased
Cl- secretion at the crypt cell level Increased Unaffected
Net Cl- secretion Massive Moderate
Intracellular mediators of chloride secretion Cyclic nucleotides (cAMP or cGMP) Ca2+
  1. Bacterial enterotoxins such as cholera toxin and the heat-labile and heat-stable enterotoxins of Escherichia coli are known to cause "pure" secretory diarrhea [36]. The NSP4 viral enterotoxin produced by rotavirus appears to function quite differently from bacterial enterotoxins, aside from the fact that neither type causes morphological damage. Further details in the text.