Effects of IL-28A on HCV RNA replication and protein expression. A) GSB cells were transfected by either control plasmid (TOPO) or IL-28A genomic expression construct (TOPO-hIL28A). After 48 hours, total RNA was isolated, followed by real-time PCR analysis with HCV-specific primers. The data represents the normalization with the internal control GADPH. B) Western blot analysis of GSB1 cells transfected with the control plasmid (TOPO) or IL-28A expression construct (TOPO-IL28A). The monoclonal antibody is specifically against HCV NS5A. The internal control is actin. C) Effect of IL-28A-conditioned medium on HCV RNA replication in GSB cells. The conditioned medium was used to treat the cells for 48 hours, followed by real-time RT-PCR analysis. D) Effect of recombinant IL-28A on HCV RNA replication in GSB cells. The relative HCV RNA levels were normalized with the internal control GADPH. The error bars indicate the variations of three independent assays.