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Table 1 Amino acid sequences of the cytoplasmic tail of spike (S) proteins of coronaviruses are compared with the YxxΦ (where x is any amino acid and Φ is an amino acid with a bulky hydrophobic side chain) motifs found in SARS-CoV 3a protein and other cellular proteins that are known to undergo endocytosis.

From: The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-coronavirus 3a protein may function as a modulator of the trafficking properties of the spike protein

Protein Amino acid sequences in the cytoplasmic taila
TGEV Sb TM-CLGSCCHSICSRRQFENYEPI EKVHVH
PRCoV Sb TM-CLGSCCHSIFSRRQFENYEPI EKVHVH
CCoV Sb TM-CLGSCCHSICSRGQFESYEPI EKVHVH
FCoV Sb TM-CLGSCCHSICSRRQFENYEPI EKVHVH
PEDV Sb TM-CCGACFSGCCRGPRLQPYEAF EKVHVQ
HCoV-229E Sb TM-CFASSIRGCCESTKLPYYDV EKIHIQ
HCoV-NL63 Sb TM-CLTSSMRGCCDCGSTKLPYYEF EKVHVQ
BCoV Sc TM-ICGGCCDDYTGH QELVIKTSHDD
HCoV-OC43 Sc TM-KCGGCCDDYTGY QELVIKTSHDD
HEV Sc TM-KCGGCCDDYTGH QEFVIKTSHDD
MHV Sc TM-KKCGNCCDECGGHQDSIVIHNISSHED
RtCoV Sc TM-KCGNCCDEYGGR QAGIVIHNISSHED
HCoV-HKU1 Sc TM-KCHNCCDEYGGH HDFVIKTSHDD
SARS-CoV Sc TM-GACSCGSCCKFDEDDSEPVLKGVKLHYT
IBV Sd TM-KKSSYYTT FDNDVVTEQYRPKKSV
SARS-CoV 3ae TM-38aa-YNSV TDTIVVTEGD-101aa
TfRe 19aa-YTRF SLARQVDGDNSHV-26aa-TM
LDLR (proximal)e TM-17aa-YQKT TEDEVHICH-20aa
LDLR (distal)e TM-34aa-YSYP SRQMVSLEDDVA
CD-M6PRe TM-34aa-YRGV GDDGLGEESEERDDHLLPM
ASGPRe MTKEYQDL QHLDNEES-24aa
  1. aSequences were obtained from National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Yxxx tetrapeptides are underlined and abbreviations used are: TM, transmembrane domain, aa, amino acids.
  2. bS proteins of group 1 coronaviruses: TGEV, transmissible gastroenteritis virus (AJ271965); PRCoV, porcine respiratory coronavirus (Z24675); CCoV, canine coronavirus (D13096); FCoV, feline coronavirus (AY204704); PEDV, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (AF353511); HCoV-229E, human coronavirus 229E (AF304460); HCoV-NL63, human coronavirus NL63(AY518894).
  3. cS proteins of group 2 coronaviruses: BCoV, bovine coronavirus (AF220295), HCoV-OC43, human coronavirus OC43 (AY585228), HEV, porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (AY078417), MHV, murine hepatitis virus (AF201929), RtCoV, rat coronavirus (AF207551), HCoV-HKU1, human coronavirus HKU1 (AY597011), SARS-CoV, SARS coronavirus (AY283798).
  4. dS protein of group 3 coronavirus: IBV, infectious bronchitis virus (M95169).
  5. eSARS-CoV 3a protein (AY283798) and other cellular proteins that are known to undergo endocytosis. Abbreviations: TfR, transferrin receptor (P02786), LDLR, low-density lipoprotein receptor (P01130); CD-M6PR, cation-dependent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (P24668); ASGPR, asialoglycoprotein receptor (P07306).
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