The balance of cell survival and cell death in response to SARS-CoV infection. SARS-CoV is shown approaching a cell with ACE2 receptors (blue "Y"s) on the surface. The virus enters the cell, uncoats, and the viral RNA is replicated and translated. The SARS-CoV U122 protein induces apoptosis in cells. SARS-CoV S and N proteins each can activate the cellular AP-1 protein, which regulates apoptosis, as well as other cellular processes. AP-1 also activates IL-8, a cellular cytokine. SARS-CoV infection induces both MAPK (pro-apoptotic) and Akt (anti-apoptotic) pathways. How this balance between cell survival and apoptosis is maintained is yet unknown. Cellular proteins are labeled in blue, viral proteins in black.