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Table 1 Demographic and epidemiological characteristics of non-injecting drug users attending private and public drug-treatment centers located in the Brazilian state of Pará, eastern Amazon

From: Epidemiological aspects of HCV infection in non-injecting drug users in the Brazilian state of Pará, eastern Amazon

Characteristics Overall sample ,N(%) Anti-HCV + n(%) OR (CI 95%) HCV-RNA + n(%) OR (CI 95%)
Total 300 106 (35.3)   84 (28.0)  
Mean age (years) 32.5 36.5   37.3  
Age ≥ 35 years 114 (38.0) 63 (59.4) 4.1 (2.5 - 6.8) 44 (52.4) 2.3 (1.4 - 3.8)
Heterosexual 279 (93.0) 101 (95.3) 1.7 (0.6 - 4.9) 78 (92.9) 1.0 (0.4 - 2.6)
Anti-HIV+ 201 (67.0) 63 (59.4) 1.5 (0.9 - 2.4) 49 (58.3) 0.7 (0.4 - 1.1)
Supposed route of HCV infection
 Family member or close friend infected with HCV 23 (7.7) 5 (4.7) 0.5 (0.2 - 1.3) 3 (3.5) 0.4 (0.1 - 1.2)
 Recipient of blood transfusion 40 (13.3) 13 (12.5) 0.9 (0.4 - 1.8) 12 (14.3) 1.2 (0.5 - 2.3)
 Surgery 139 (46.3) 58 (54.7) 1.7 (1.1 - 2.7) 44 (52.4) 1.5 (0.9 - 2.3)
 Tattoos 177 (59.0) 81 (76.4) 3.3 (1.9 - 5.6) 76 (90.5) 10.9 (5.0 - 23.7)
 Shared used of razor blades in the domestic environment 102 (34.0) 40 (37.7) 1.3 (0.8 - 2.1) 33 (39.3) 1.4 (0.8 - 2.3)
 Shared used of blades in a barbershop/beauty salon 81 (27.0) 27 (25.5) 0.9 (0.5 - 1.5) 22 (26.2) 0.9 (0.5 - 1.7)
 Use of a needle or syringe sterilized at home 72 (24.0) 33 (31.1) 1.8 (1.1 - 3.1) 28 (33.3) 2.0 (1.1 - 3.4)
 Shared nail clippers 130 (43.3) 50 (47.2) 1.3 (0.8 - 2.1) 38 (42.2) 0.9 (0.5 - 1.5)
 Invasive dental treatment 227 (75.7) 81 (76.4) 1.1 (0.6 - 1.9) 65 (77.4) 1.1 (0.6 - 2.1)
 Shared use of drug paraphernalia 204 (68.0) 94 (88.7) 6.0 (3.1 - 11.6) 77 (91.7) 7.7 (3.4 - 17.5)
 Use of drugs for more than 5 years 199 (66.3) 88 (83.0) 3.7 (2.0 - 6.5) 69 (82.1) 3.1 (1.6 - 5.7)
 Use of drugs everyday 246 (82.0) 97 (91.5) 3.3 (1.5 - 6.9) 80 (95.2) 6.0 (2.1 - 17.2)
 Have already been arrested in police station or prison 84 (28.0) 28 (33.3) 0.9 (0.5 - 1.4) 20 (23.8) 0.7 (0.4 - 1.3)
 Use of drugs during detention 40 (13.3) 13 (32.5) 0.9 (0.4 - 1.8) 10 (11.9) 0.8 (0.4 - 1.8)
 Unprotected sex 234 (78.0) 79 (74.5) 0.7 (0.4 - 1.3) 63 (75.0) 0.8 (0.4 - 1.4)
 Sexual intercourse with another drug user 191 (63.7) 71 (67.0) 1.3 (0.8 - 2.1) 56 (66.7) 1.2 (0.4 -1.2)
 Involvement in prostitution 157 (52.3) 50 (47.2) 0.7 (0.5 - 1.2) 36 (42.9) 0.7 (0.4 - 1.2)
 More than 20 sexual partners over the past 2 years 138 (46.0) 44 (41.5) 0.8 (0.5 - 1.3) 35 (41.7) 0.8 (0.5 - 1.3)