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Table 1 Summary of the mechanisms employed by HBV to counteract induction of an efficient interferon response in infected cells

From: Innate immune responses in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection

Experimental model Mechanism HBV protein involved Functional outcome Reference
Human hepatocyte cell line Inhibition of IRF3 HBV polymerase Inhibition of IFN-β induction [52]
Hepatoma cell lines, liver tumor samples MAVS degradation HBx Prevention of IFN-β induction [55]
Hepatoma cell lines Blocking DDX3 DEAD box RNA helicase HBV polymerase Inhibition of IFN-β promoter in response to RIG-I/MDA5 and TLR3 [51]
Hepatoma cell lines, HBx transgenic mouse HBx binding to IPS-1 HBx Inhibition of IFN-β induction [54]
Hepatoma cell lines Binding and inactivation of mitochondrial membrane protein virus-induced signalling adaptor (VISA) HBx Inhibition of virus-triggered IRF3 activation and IFN-β induction [53]
HBV transgenic mice and hepatoma cell lines   HBsAg, HBeAg, or HBV virions Suppression of TLR 1-9 induced activation of IRF3, NF-κB, ERK1/2 and IFN-β production [58]
VSV infection of hepatoma cell lines and monocyte-derived dendritic cells from patients with HBV infection    Reduced RIG-I expression and IFN-β production [50]