EBV infection of AGS cells suppresses GKN1 and GKN2 transcription. (A) Western blot analysis of EBNA1 protein expression in AGS-EBV cells compared with EBV-negative AGS cells was performed using antibody for EBNA1 (top) or Actin (bottom). (B) DNA copy number was assayed by real-time PCR of EBV Ori-Lyt DNA relative to the level of cellular GAPDH in AGS, AGS-EBV, and EBV-LCL cells. (C) ChIP and real-time PCR analysis of EBNA1 (red bars) or control IgG (blue bars) for DNA binding at the EBV sites including DS and Ori-Lyt, or cellular sites including GKN1/2 and GAPDH in AGS-EBV cells. (D) RT-PCR was performed to analyze the mRNA level of GKN1 or GKN2 in AGS (blue bars) or AGS-EBV cells (red bars). ** indicates p < .005. Error bars indicate standard deviation from the mean (sdm) for n = 3.