- Open Access
Type-I interferon response affects an inoculation dose-independent mortality in mice following Japanese encephalitis virus infection
© Aoki et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014
- Received: 29 January 2014
- Accepted: 21 May 2014
- Published: 5 June 2014
The laboratory mouse model is commonly employed to study the pathogenesis of encephalitic flaviviruses such as Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). However, it is known that some strains of these viruses do not elicit a typical mortality dose response curve from this organism after peripheral infection and the reason for it has not yet been fully understood. It is suggested that induction of more vigorous Type-I IFN (IFN-I) response might control early virus dissemination following increasing infectious challenge doses of the virus. Thus, the objective of this study was to examine this suggested role of IFN-I in the mortality of mice infected with various doses of JEV.
Inbred 129 mice and their IFNAR KO (A129) mice were subcutaneously inoculated with 100, 102, 104 or 106 pfu of JaOArS982 strain of JEV. Mice were weighed daily and observed for clinical signs. Virus titers in the brains and spleens of JEV-infected mice were determined by plaque forming assays. The upregulated mRNA levels of genes related to IFN-I response of mice were examined by real-time PCR.
The mortality rates of 129 mice infected with JaOArS982 did not significantly increase despite the increase in inoculation dose and no significant difference of viral loads was observed between their brains. However, there was clear elevation of the mRNA levels of interferon regulatory factor (IRF)3, IRF7, IRF9, MDA5 and RIG-I at 24 hours post-infection depending on the inoculation dose. In A129 mice, length of survival days and the viral loads of spleen and brain were observed to be inoculation dose-dependent.
From these results, it is suggested that early IFN-I response elicited by high inoculation doses of JEV provides an anti-viral effect during the early phase of infection. Accordingly, virus replication is counteracted by IFN-I response at each increasing inoculation dose resulting in the interference of impending severe disease course or fatal outcome; hence, this might explain the inoculation dose-independent mortality in mice caused by Japanese encephalitis virus.
- Japanese encephalitis virus
- Type-I interferon
- Mouse model
- Inoculation dose-independent mortality
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) belonging to the genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae, is a causative agent of Japanese encephalitis (JE), an acute central nervous system (CNS) disease in humans . JE is considered as one of the most important encephalitic arthropod-borne diseases. An estimated 3 billion people live in countries where JE is endemic and 30,000 - 50,000 cases and 10,000 - 15,000 deaths are reported annually [1–3]. However, because many cases in less well developed countries are almost certainly unreported, this is likely to be a gross underestimate of the actual number of cases that either result in fatality or infection with severe sequelae. Thus, it is important to understand the mechanism of the development of the disease especially in severe cases.
To study the CNS pathology induced by encephalitic flaviviruses such as JEV and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), the laboratory mouse model is commonly employed. The reason is that the pathologic changes observed in infected mouse brains are similar to those observed in humans [4–10].
In general, to evaluate the virulence and pathogenicity of virus infection in a mouse model, lethal dose has been used as an index and it is believed that an increase in inoculation dose can cause high mortality. However, it is known that mice infected peripherally with some strains of encephalitic flaviviruses do not exhibit a typical mortality dose response curve. Although this has been reported since the 1940’s , the reason for this apparent discrepancies has until now not been fully understood. We previously reported that late death following TBEV and JEV infections appears to be a key feature of inoculation dose-independent mortality [12, 13]. Late death was observed in mice subcutaneously inoculated with 100 to 106 pfu of these viruses [12, 13]. However, we were not able to fully elucidate why no significant difference was found between any of the mortality rates despite the increase in inoculation doses.
Recently, it was suggested that induction of more vigorous innate immune response might control early virus dissemination following increasing infectious challenge doses of the virus [8, 14, 15]. Thus, in this study, we focused on Type-I IFN (IFN-I) response induced at early phase following extraneural infection and examined its role in the mortality of mice.
Inoculation dose-independent mortality in inbred 129 mice subcutaneously infected with JEV
IFN-I response in the spleen of 129 mice infected with various doses of JEV
To examine IFN-I response, we first measured the levels of IFN-α and IFN-β in the serum using some commercial ELISA kits. However, these cytokines were not detected in all mice infected with various doses of JEV nor in all uninfected mice (data not shown). In the spleen, we also tried to detect and compare the expression levels of IFNs and IFN-I related proteins by Western blot, however, we failed. Thus, we next examined the mRNA levels of genes related to IFN-I response of mice by real-time PCR referred to in previous studies [12, 13, 16, 17].
At 48 hours pi, the mRNA levels of IRF3 and IRF7 were elevated depending on the inoculation dose (Figure 2B). However, the highest levels of MDA5, RIG-I and PKR were found in 104 pfu-inoculated mice. IRF9 of 106, 104 and 102 pfu-inoculated mice showed similar up-regulated levels (Figure 2B). IFN-α and IFN-β also tended to elevate in an inoculation dose-dependent manner, although the differences in the mRNA levels were not significant (Figure 2B).
At 72 hours pi, the level of IRF7 was higher in 104and 102 pfu-inoculated mice compared with other mice groups (Figure 2C). IRF9, MDA5 and RIG-I showed highest levels in 102 pfu-inoculated mice compared with other mice groups (Figure 2C). IRF3, PKR, IFN-α and IFN-β also tended to be more elevated in 102 pfu-inoculated mice, although the differences in the mRNA levels were not significant (Figure 2C).
These results suggested that the mRNA levels of IFN-I related genes can elevate as the dose of inoculated JEV is increased and that the peaks shift to lower inoculation doses as time passes by.
Inoculation dose-dependent mortality in IFNAR KO mice infected with JEV
In the spleens, infectious viruses were detected initially at 24 h pi in 106 and 104 pfu-inoculated mice, at 48 h in 102 pfu-inoculated mice, and at 72 h pi in 100 pfu-inoculated mice, and the viral loads changed in a dose-dependent manner through time (Figure 3C). In the brains, infectious viruses were detected initially at 24 h pi in 106 pfu-inoculated mice, at 48 h pi in 104 pfu-inoculated mice, and at 72 h pi in 102 and 100 pfu-inoculated mice (Figure 3D). Thus, virus infection and replication in the peripheral tissues and brains are clearly inoculation dose-dependent in A129 mice.
In this study, we confirmed that mouse mortality is not dependent on the inoculation dose of JEV, that the increase in the mRNA levels of IFN-I related genes in mouse is suggested to be related to the increase of the dose of inoculated JEV, and that when IFN receptor is incapacitated during infection an inoculation dose-dependent mortality can occur in a mouse. Taken together, these suggest that IFN-I response affects the dose-independent mortality in a mouse model.
In our preliminary experiments, we intravenously injected constant amount of Poly (I:C) (a potent IFN inducer) or exogenous IFNs in mice following JEV infection to examine whether this treatment could provide protection in JEV-infected mice at lower inoculation dose but not at a higher dose. However, apparent protective effect on mortality by this treatment was not observed, and hence dose-independent mortality was not restored (data not shown). It could be due to technical problem that prevented IFN effects to reach local sites of infected tissues, because apparent IFN-I induction was not confirmed in the serum of mice injected with either inoculum (data not shown). However, this kind of approach is important because it may be able to give certain clues for elucidating further the mechanism on dose-independent mortality and thus further improvement of experimental design is required.
IFN-I response of JEV infected mice was initially examined by determining the levels of IFN-α and IFN-β in the serum through ELISA, but our attempt failed even in the mice that showed high mRNA levels of IFN-α and IFN-β in the spleen, e.g. those that received 106 pfu inoculation at 24 hours pi and 102 pfu inoculation at 72 hours pi. It could be due to technical difficulty. Therefore, the mRNA levels which were easier to detect by quantitative real-time RT-PCR were determined instead.
We examined the levels for IRF3, IRF7, IRF9, MDA5, RIG-I and PKR. IRFs play central roles in the induction of IFN-I at the gene transcriptional level . IRF3 and IRF7 have been implicated as positive regulators of IFN-I gene expression induced by virus infections [18, 19], whereas IRF9 constitutes an IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 together with STAT1 and STAT2, and is responsible for the induction of the IRF7 gene . MDA5 and RIG-I function as cytoplasmic sensors of pathogen-associated molecular patterns within viral RNA and their expression is greatly increased with IFN-I exposure following virus infection . They trigger the signal pathway of IRF3 and IRF7 [18, 19]. PKR, an IFN-inducible gene product, binds to viral double-stranded RNA and halts protein synthesis by phosphorylating translation initiation factor eIF2 . It plays an important role for the IFN-I induction, and its activation accompanies IRF3 activation [22, 23]. The upregulation of the mRNA of these IFN-I related genes were observed in the present study in JEV infected mice and these reflected IFN response. A component or components of this response could have been affected following JEV infection at very high dose leading to a dose independent mortality.
Interestingly, it was observed that mRNA levels of IFN-α and IFN-β in the spleen of uninfected mice were somehow higher than those of 102 and 100 pfu-inoculated mice at 24 and 48 hours pi (Figure 2). Although One-way analysis of variance and Tukey’s Multiple Comparison Test used in this study showed no significant differences between them, these observations raised the possibility that low-dose inoculation with JEV might induce suppressive effects on IFN-I mRNA levels at early phase of infection. Further investigations will be required to elucidate this phenomenon.
In our previous and preliminary studies, we tried to detect mRNA of inflammatory genes including IFNs and their associated genes in the brains of JEV-infected mice. However, these mRNA were detected only after 5 days pi and the levels were not significantly different between mice inoculated with different doses. These observations showed patterns of viral loads similar to those shown in Figure 1. Clinical signs in fatal cases were observed after 7–10 days pi, but apparent CNS disease such as paralysis was not exhibited and their clinical signs (e.g. weight loss) were not significantly different between various inoculation doses. In our JEV-infected mouse model, main pathological changes and neuronal damage were observed in brain cortex . The lesions seem to be related to memory deficiency and mental retardation but not paralysis and movement disorder. Thus, it was quite difficult to observe the CNS signs in JEV-infected mice, although lethal encephalitis was observed in dead mice. Encephalitis was a result of neuronal infection and subsequent inflammatory response. Systemic IFN-I response at early phase of infection appears to affect to viral CNS entry and neuronal infection. Therefore, we suggest that interference of inoculation dose-dependence by IFNs occurred in peripheral tissues, and thus subsequent neuronal infection and inflammatory responses including IFNs in the brains were not different between various inoculation doses.
We previously suggested that immunopathogenic responses in addition to high CNS infection contribute to the severe prognoses and we observed variable immune response in individual mouse infected with JEV or TBEV [13, 24]. These data raise the possibility that there may be a variety of acquired immune response, e. g. specific T cell clones affecting either protective or pathogenetic functions in dying and recovering mice. Furthermore, we propose that the mortality following extraneural infection in mice does not simply represent neuroinvasiveness and thus it is difficult to compare pathogenesis by the lethal doses after peripheral inoculation in mouse model. To understand the pathogenic mechanism of flavivirus encephalitis, further elucidation of IFN-response, immunopathological effect, and their correlation will be an important priority to develop effective treatment strategies for flavivirus encephalitis.
In conclusion, it is suggested that early IFN-I response of normal mice after receiving high inoculation doses of JEV provides an anti-viral effect during the early phase of infection. Virus replication is counteracted by IFN-I response at each increasing inoculation dose resulting in the interference of impending severe disease course or fatal outcome and this might explain the inoculation dose-independent mortality in mice caused by Japanese encephalitis virus.
Virus and cells
Stocks of JaOArS982 strain of JEV were obtained from cell culture medium of infected BHK cells . The BHK cells were maintained in Eagle’s Minimal Essential Medium (EMEM) containing 10% fetal calf serum.
Inbred 129 mice were provided by RIKEN BRC through the National Bio-Resource Project of the MEXT, Japan. A129 mice were purchased from B & K Universal limited. These mice were mated in the facility of Nagasaki University. Five to six week old mice [129 (n=14) and A129 (n=10)] were subcutaneously inoculated with 100, 102, 104 or 106 pfu of JaOArS982. Mice were weighed daily and observed for clinical signs for 21 days. The experimental protocols were approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee of the Nagasaki University (approval number: 091130-2-7 / 0912080807–7).
Titration of virus in tissues
Mice subcutaneously inoculated with 100, 102, 104 or 106 pfu of JaOArS982 (n=3 for each dose) were euthanized on days 5 and 9 pi, and spleens and brain cortices were collected. Individual organ was homogenized and virus titers (expressed as pfu/g tissue) were determined by plaque forming assay in BHK cells [12, 13].
Quantitative estimation of the upregulation of IFN-I related genes in spleens
Mice subcutaneously inoculated with 100, 102, 104 or 106 pfu of JaOArS982 were euthanized, and spleens were collected. Experiments were carried out three times and data presented were pool of these experiments (thus a total of n=3 per dose). Total RNA was extracted and the mRNA levels of IRF3, IRF7, IRF9, MDA5, RIG-I, PKR, IFN-α and IFN-β were measured by real time-PCR as demonstrated previously .
Statistical analyses were performed by using GraphPad Prism 5 (GraphPad Software, Inc). One-way analysis of variance was used to assess the significant differences between viral loads and between mRNA levels of genes. Tukey’s Multiple Comparison Test of post hoc analysis was used to further compare which pairs were significantly different. However, GraphPad Prism 5 did not show actual p values in this test but only indicated whether P < 0.05 or not. To assess the significant differences between four groups (100, 102, 104 or 106 pfu ) of JEV-infected mice, survival analysis was performed by Log-rank (Mantel-Cox) test.
We thank RIKEN BRC for kindly providing the Inbred 129 mice. We also thank Kanae Tanaka, Tomoko Hori, Moeri Tsuji, Toshiki Nakamura, Jun Iriki and Mizuna Eguchi (Department of Virology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University) for technical support. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers 25304045, 25660229, 23658243; Health and Labour Sciences Research Grant on Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases from the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare; the Global COE Program for Control of Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases (Nagasaki University); Research on International Cooperation in Medical Science (Japan-US Cooperative Program), Health and Labour Sciences Research Grants; and the Japan Initiative for Global Research Network on Infectious Diseases.
- Gubler JD, Kuno G, Markoff L, Flaviviruses: Fields Virology. Edited by: Knipe DM, Howley PM, Griffin DE, Lamb RA, Straus SE, Martin MA, Roizman B. 2007, Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, a Wolters Kluwer Business, 1153-1252.Google Scholar
- Erlanger TE, Weiss S, Keiser J, Utzinger J, Wiedenmayer K: Past, present, and future of Japanese encephalitis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009, 15 (1): 1-7.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ghosh D, Basu A: Japanese encephalitis-a pathological and clinical perspective. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2009, 3 (9): e437-PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Garcia-Tapia D, Hassett DE, Mitchell WJ, Johnson GC, Kleiboeker SB: West Nile virus encephalitis: sequential histopathological and immunological events in a murine model of infection. J Neurovirol. 2007, 13 (2): 130-138.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Albrecht P: Pathogenesis of neurotropic arbovirus infections. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 1968, 43: 44-91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Burke SD, Monath PT: Flaviviruses. Fields Virology. Edited by: Knipe DM, Howley PM, Griffin DE, Lamb RA, Martin MA, Roizman B, Straus SE. 2001, Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 991-1041.Google Scholar
- Kimura T, Sasaki M, Okumura M, Kim E, Sawa H: Flavivirus encephalitis: pathological aspects of mouse and other animal models. Vet Pathol. 2010, 47 (5): 806-818.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Larena M, Lobigs M: Immunobiology of Japanese encephalitis virus. Flavivirus Encephalitis. Edited by: Croatia RD. 2011, 317-338. InTechGoogle Scholar
- German AC, Myint KS, Mai NT, Pomeroy I, Phu NH, Tzartos J, Winter P, Collett J, Farrar J, Barrett A, Kipar A, Esiri MM, Solomon T: A preliminary neuropathological study of Japanese encephalitis in humans and a mouse model. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2006, 100 (12): 1135-1145.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hase T, Dubois DR, Summers PL: Comparative study of mouse brains infected with Japanese encephalitis virus by intracerebral or intraperitoneal inoculation. Int J Exp Pathol. 1990, 71 (6): 857-869.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Lennette EH: Influence of age on the susceptibility of mice to infection with certain neurotropic viruses. J Immunol. 1944, 49: 175-191.Google Scholar
- Hayasaka D, Nagata N, Fujii Y, Hasegawa H, Sata T, Suzuki R, Gould EA, Takashima I, Koike S: Mortality following peripheral infection with tick-borne encephalitis virus results from a combination of central nervous system pathology, systemic inflammatory and stress responses. Virology. 2009, 390 (1): 139-150.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hayasaka D, Shirai K, Aoki K, Nagata N, Simantini DS, Kitaura K, Takamatsu Y, Gould E, Suzuki R, Morita K: TNF-alpha acts as an immunoregulator in the mouse brain by reducing the incidence of severe disease following Japanese encephalitis virus infection. PLoS One. 2013, 8 (8): e71643-PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Larena M, Regner M, Lee E, Lobigs M: Pivotal role of antibody and subsidiary contribution of CD8+ T cells to recovery from infection in a murine model of Japanese encephalitis. J Virol. 2011, 85 (11): 5446-5455.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Monath TP, Guirakhoo F, Nichols R, Yoksan S, Schrader R, Murphy C, Blum P, Woodward S, McCarthy K, Mathis D, Johnson C, Bedford P: Chimeric live, attenuated vaccine against Japanese encephalitis (ChimeriVax-JE): phase 2 clinical trials for safety and immunogenicity, effect of vaccine dose and schedule, and memory response to challenge with inactivated Japanese encephalitis antigen. J Infect Dis. 2003, 188 (8): 1213-1230.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Fujii Y, Kitaura K, Nakamichi K, Takasaki T, Suzuki R, Kurane I: Accumulation of T-cells with selected T-cell receptors in the brains of Japanese encephalitis virus-infected mice. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2008, 61 (1): 40-48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yoshikawa T, Iwasaki T, Ida-Hosonuma M, Yoneyama M, Fujita T, Horie H, Miyazawa M, Abe S, Simizu B, Koike S: Role of the alpha/beta interferon response in the acquisition of susceptibility to poliovirus by kidney cells in culture. J Virol. 2006, 80 (9): 4313-4325.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Honda K, Takaoka A, Taniguchi T: Type I interferon [corrected] gene induction by the interferon regulatory factor family of transcription factors. Immunity. 2006, 25 (3): 349-360.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tamura T, Yanai H, Savitsky D, Taniguchi T: The IRF family transcription factors in immunity and oncogenesis. Annu Rev Immunol. 2008, 26: 535-584.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Loo YM, Gale M: Immune signaling by RIG-I-like receptors. Immunity. 2011, 34 (5): 680-692.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Taylor SS, Haste NM, Ghosh G: PKR and eIF2alpha: integration of kinase dimerization, activation, and substrate docking. Cell. 2005, 122 (6): 823-825.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pfaller CK, Li Z, George CX, Samuel CE: Protein kinase PKR and RNA adenosine deaminase ADAR1: new roles for old players as modulators of the interferon response. Curr Opin Immunol. 2011, 23 (5): 573-582.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- McAllister CS, Samuel CE: The RNA-activated protein kinase enhances the induction of interferon-beta and apoptosis mediated by cytoplasmic RNA sensors. J Biol Chem. 2009, 284 (3): 1644-1651.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hills SL, Phillips DC: Past, present, and future of Japanese encephalitis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009, 15 (8): 1333-PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hayasaka D, Ivanov L, Leonova GN, Goto A, Yoshii K, Mizutani T, Kariwa H, Takashima I: Distribution and characterization of tick-borne encephalitis viruses from Siberia and far-eastern Asia. J Gen Virol. 2001, 82 (Pt 6): 1319-1328.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.