Respiratory viruses in children hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection in Ghana
© Kwofie et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2012
Received: 2 October 2011
Accepted: 10 April 2012
Published: 10 April 2012
Acute respiratory tract infections are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among young children in developing countries. Information on the viral aetiology of acute respiratory infections in developing countries is very limited. The study was done to identify viruses associated with acute lower respiratory tract infection among children less than 5 years.
Nasopharyngeal samples and blood cultures were collected from children less than 5 years who have been hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection. Viruses and bacteria were identified using Reverse Transcriptase Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction and conventional biochemical techniques.
Out of 128 patients recruited, 33(25.88%%, 95%CI: 18.5% to 34.2%) were positive for one or more viruses. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) was detected in 18(14.1%, 95%CI: 8.5% to 21.3%) patients followed by Adenoviruses (AdV) in 13(10.2%, 95%CI: 5.5% to 16.7%), Parainfluenza (PIV type: 1, 2, 3) in 4(3.1%, 95%CI: 0.9% to 7.8%) and influenza B viruses in 1(0.8%, 95%CI: 0.0 to 4.3). Concomitant viral and bacterial co-infection occurred in two patients. There were no detectable significant differences in the clinical signs, symptoms and severity for the various pathogens isolated. A total of 61.1% (22/36) of positive viruses were detected during the rainy season and Respiratory Syncytial Virus was the most predominant.
The study has demonstrated an important burden of respiratory viruses as major causes of childhood acute respiratory infection in a tertiary health institution in Ghana. The data addresses a need for more studies on viral associated respiratory tract infection.
KeywordsRespiratory Viruses Hospitalized children Real-Time PCR
Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in young children throughout the world especially in developing countries [1, 2]. Data from WHO estimated the burden of ARI at 94,037,000 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and 3.9 million deaths in 2001 . Similar report from a meta-analysis study demonstrates that throughout the world 1.9 million (95% CI 1.6-2.2 million) children died from ARI in 2000, 70% of them in Africa and Southeast Asia . A further systematic analysis also estimated 1.575 million (uncertainty range: 1.046 million - 1.874 million) deaths of children worldwide in 2008 as due to ARI .
Majority of acute lower respiratory tract infections(ALRTI) in developed countries have been reported to be often due to viral pathogens of which most common are RSV, PIV, influenza viruses, Adv, human Coronaviruses and Bocaviruses [5–7]. On the contrary, information on these viruses in developing countries is limited probably due to paucity of modern diagnostic molecular techniques. These infections are therefore treated unsuccessfully with antibiotics based on suspicion of bacterial causes .
Apart from the public health concern of nosocomial infections that are associated with viral respiratory infections [9, 10], significant costs derived from long duration of hospitalization and several healthcare visits could also aggravate the poor socio-economic status and increased child mortality in developing countries including Ghana.
Lessons from the outbreak of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) epidemics which resulted in the death of 776 individuals  and the recent emergence of a novel swine flu pandemic emphasize the risk posed by respiratory viral infections in humans .
This study was done to determine the burden of respiratory viruses among children hospitalized at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital for acute lower respiratory illness using the Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR).
This was a hospital based cross-sectional study of children less or equal to five years and hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract illness.
The study was performed at the children's ward of the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Ghana from January to December 2008. KATH is approximately a thousand bed tertiary medical facility located in Ashanti Region, Kumasi, the confluence of the transportation network in the central part of Ghana. Its position makes it the most accessible tertiary and referral medical facility in Ghana attending to a population of over 4.4 million in the Ashanti region and beyond .
To have a year round incidence of the various viral agents, recruitment was done throughout the year 2008. Screening and recruitment were started at the beginning of every week till two or three patients were recruited. After a maximum of three patients have been obtained it was suspended till the beginning of the next week. This cycle was repeated till the maximum of 11 patients were recruited for each month.
At the recruitment station all patients arriving at the unit were screened but only those less than five completed years were recruited. Patients recruited into the study should have features of severe pneumonia or very severe pneumonia as defined by the WHO-IMCI (World Health Organisation Integrated Management of Childhood Illness) protocol [14, 15]. Severe pneumonia was said to be present if the child has a history of cough and/or difficult breathing of less than 3 weeks duration, with lower chest wall recession. Severe pneumonia in addition to cyanosis and/or inability to feed or drink was classified as very severe pneumonia. A child was recruited into the study only after the guardian or parents had consented after the objectives of the study had been explained in English or the local dialect. A standardized case record form was then used to record the history of the illness as well as the presenting clinical features of pneumonia.
Five (5 ml) of blood sample was then taken into 25 ml of Brain Heart Infusion Broth (BHIB) and quickly sent to the bacteriological laboratory for culture. Nasopharyngeal specimens were also taken using the nasopharyngeal flocked swab (Copan, Italy). The swab was gently inserted up the nostril towards the pharynx until resistance was felt and then rotated 3 times to obtain epithelial cells. It was then withdrawn and put into 2.5 ml phosphate buffered saline (X1). The samples were transported on ice to the laboratory within few hours of collection. They were then vortexed, transferred into 1.5 ml eppendorf tubes (Eppendorf, Germany) and kept at -80°C for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Both samples were taken by experienced prior trained nurses of the children ward. Children were excluded if both samples could not be obtained for any reason.
Target genes and primer sequences for respiratory pathogens
Matrix gene 
Reverse primer A
Reverse primer B
Hexon gene 
Polymerase gene 
Polymerase gene 
Matrix gene 
Matrix gene 
Forward primer A1
Forward primer A2
Hemagglutinin (HA)gene 
The PCR conditions for PIV, RSV and Influenza viruses consisted of an initial reverse transcription at 20 minutes for 50°C, Taq DNA polymerase activation at 95°C followed by forty five (45) cycles of denaturation at 15 seconds for 95°C and annealing at 15 seconds for 58°C. The initial reverse transcription step was omitted in the case of Adv.
Controls and standards
For each batch of tests that were run, RNase free water (Qiagen, Germany) was used as negative control and in vitro transcribed gene of the various viruses was used to determine the detection limit of the assay as positive control. The in vitro transcripts were prepared in our collaborative institution (Bonn Institute of Virology, Bonn, Germany) and transported to Ghana via cooling chain. The in vitro transcripts were prepared by amplifying the genes of interest of the viruses with specific set of primers. The products were ligated to the PCR2.1 vector using the TOPO TA cloning kit (Invitogen Corp, Carlsbad, CA) and transformed into competent E.coli cells. After overnight incubation, desirable colonies were selected and purified using Qiamp Spin-Miniprep Kit (Qiagen, Germany). PCR was performed on the purified product and RNA transcripts were then synthesized from the lowest dilution (with clear band) using Ambion Megascripts T3 kit (Invitogen corp, Calsbad, CA). The final products were purified using Rneasy Mini Kit (Qiagen, Germany) and the concentrations of the transcripts were determined using a spectrophotometer (Themoscientific, U.S.A). The copy numbers of the RNA transcripts were determined following the method of Fronhoffs . Ten-fold dilutions of the RNA transcripts were prepared in Carrier RNA-RNase free water (310 μg of Carrier RNA in 310 ml of RNase free water) and tested. The detection limit was determined as the last dilution after which all other replicates gave negative results. The detection limits were Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV): 20 copies/μl, PIV 1: 1 - 78 copies/μl, PIV 2: 400 copies/μl, PIV 3: 30 copies/μl, Influenza A: 120 copies/μl and Influenza B: 480 copies/μl.
To determine the specificities, our assays were tested on other different viruses and they turn out negative.
Bacterial isolates were identified using conventional biochemical methods including urease and indole production, citrate utilization, hydrogen sulphide, gas production and fermentation of sugars. The biochemical media used included Simon's Citrate medium, Urea and Triple Sugar Iron agar (TSI). Coagulase tests were performed for all staphylococci organisms.
Data obtained was double entered into a spreadsheet database prepared with Microsoft® Excel. It was then compared and cleaned for abnormal wrongful entries. Statistical analysis was done using STATA SE statistical software version 11.2(Texas, USA) after the data had been imported. Categorical variables such as age groups and their association with respiratory agents were analyzed using the Fischer's exact test. Continuous variables were expressed as medians with their inter-quartile ranges. A non-parametric K-sample test on the equality of medians was used to evaluate the differences in the medians of the various subgroups of the continuous variables. For all analysis done, a p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
The study protocol was approved by the Committee for Human Research, Publications and Ethics (CHRPE) of KATH and School of Medical Sciences, KNUST, Kumasi, Ashanti region, Ghana.
A total of 128 patients were recruited over the period of January to December 2008. The median age of the patients was 12 months (IQR: 6-24 months) and the number of males was 81(63.3%). Sixty one (47.7%) had severe pneumonia with the rest diagnosed as very severe pneumonia. At least one respiratory virus was detected in 33 (25.7%, 95%CI: 18.5% to 34.2%) children. Multiple viral infections were detected in 2 patients. One had an RSV and PIV 1 co-infection whiles the other had a combination of RSV, Influenza B and Adenovirus co-infection. Bacteria was isolated from only 12 (9.4%, 95%CI: 4.9 to 15.8%) patients with 10 of these being Staphylococcus aureus. The other two were Klebsiella species and Coliform. RSV and Staphylococcus aureus coinfection was also identified in two patients.
Association between age groups and respiratory virus infection
6 to 23
24 to 60
(n = 30)
(n = 59)
(n = 39)
Patients infected with at least one virus, no.(%)
Respiratory syncytial virus, no (%)
Adenovirus, no. (%)
Parainfluenza 1, no. (%)
Parainfluenza 3, no. (%)
Influenza B, no.(%)
Distribution of clinical presentation and microbial isolation
(n = 85)
(n = 31)
(n = 10)
Bacteria & Viruses
(n = 2)
(n = 128)
Duration of illness (days) median(IQR)
Sex (male) n(%)
Tachypnoea n (%)
Chest recessions n (%)
Wheeze n (%)
Cyanosis n (%)
Poor feeding n (%)
Diarrhea n (%)
Vomiting n (%)
Severe Pneumonia n (%)
Very severe Pneumonia n (%)
Clinical presentations of patients infected with individual respiratory viruses
(n = 18)
(n = 13)
(n = 1)
(n = 3)
(n = 1)
Duration of illness
Sex (male) n(%)
Chest recessions n(%)
Poor feeding n(%)
Severe Pneumonia n(%)
Very severe Pneumonia n (%)
Viral agents play an important role in acute lower respiratory infections and may herald the onset of pneumonia caused by secondary bacterial infections . Although information on the causes of respiratory illness in tropical countries is very scanty, available data indicates about one -third of the cases of respiratory tract infections are due to viruses .
The present study identified viruses in 25.8% of patients hospitalized for ALRTI with RSV being the most predominant. The overall prevalence is comparable to previous studies done in other developing countries  and the predominance of RSV is in accordance with the assertion that this virus is the single most frequent lower respiratory tract pathogen in infants and young children worldwide [25–27].
Adenoviruses, the second highest viruses detected in this study have been reported to be responsible for 5-10% of lower respiratory tract infections with the highest rate occurring in younger children [28–31]. Our study similarly recorded a 10.2% detection rate of Adenoviruses however there was no statistical difference in the age specific prevalence. This could possibly be due to the few number of younger children (less than one year) enrolled in this study.
This study generally recorded higher cases of tachypnoea, chest recessions and very severe pneumonia in RSV compared to Adenovirus infected patients but the differences were not statistically significant. Although similar clinical presentations have been found to be associated with RSV [32, 33], our small sample size could account for our inability to detect these differences.
Among patients who were poorly fed, those without viral or bacterial infections were found to be higher (p = 0.03). Poor feeding and malnutrition has generally been associated with less risk for respiratory viral infection in developing countries [34–36] however the possibility of increased mortality could occur especially when bacterial infections are involved. Further case controlled studies are therefore needed in developing countries to investigate this observation
There have been fewer studies of PIV infections in developing countries and most of them do not differentiate the subtypes of the viruses. Our study recorded a 3.1% prevalence of PIV infections with the predominant type being PIV-3. Similar hospital based studies have been reported in other developing countries [37–40]. PIV infections have been strongly associated with croup [41, 42]. The present study recorded no case of croup among PIV patients.
Viral associated bacteremia was detected in two patients (1.7%). Low rate of secondary bacterial infections has generally been reported in developing countries with the isolation rate varying between 2 and 10% [43–45]. Studies in some developed countries however reported the converse [46, 47] probably due to the higher sensitivity of the bacteria identification techniques used. The blood culture identification system used in this study may be limited in the detection of bacteria associated with lower respiratory tract infection. Perhaps the detection rate could have increased if the present study had identified bacterial pathogens from nasopharyngeal aspirates or washings as reported by Hishinki et al. .
The isolation of Staphylococcus aureus in an RSV positive patient in the present study was similar to studies reported by Berman et al.,  and Cherian et al., . In their case, the bacterium was associated with fatality in the children.
The present study observed that all subjects enrolled in this study were treated empirically with antibiotics in accordance with the paediatric emergency treatment protocol for managing severe and very severe pneumonia. Similar occurrences have been reported where patients were treated unsuccessfully with multiple antibiotics . Policy makers may therefore consider reviewing the clinical algorithm for patient management as the economic cost both to the health service and the patient's household derived from the use of antibiotics could be enormous.
The period of this study experienced major rainfalls in the months of May to July and minor rainfalls in the month of September to October. The month of October recorded the highest detection of viral infections (57.6%; 19/33) with the commonest being RSV. This phenomenon has been reported in other developing countries [43, 49]. The occurrence of RSV infections in the rainy and cold season could be due to overcrowding as a result of populations staying more to their homes. More studies are however needed to define the seasonality of respiratory viruses in tropical countries.
Our study had some limitations which include underestimation of the overall prevalence of respiratory viruses since we did not test for coronaviruses, human metapneumovirus, bocaviruses and rhinoviruses which have also been reported in hospitalized patients. Also the negative results recorded for Influenza A and PIV 2 and the low prevalence of influenza B in our samples could be due to the low sensitivity of the assay for these viruses. The limit of detections of Influenza A, Influenza B and PIV 2 are 120 copies/μl, 480 copies/μl and 400 copies/μl respectively as such viral copies below these limits of detections could be missed by our assay.
This study has demonstrated that respiratory viruses are associated with a considerable number of hospital admissions in Ghana. Hospitalized children presenting with symptoms of ALRTI may not necessarily need treatment with antibiotics but rather antiviral drug options could be explored. The importance of further cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of viral-associated respiratory infections among out-patients and healthy populations cannot be over emphasized. This will contribute immensely to overcoming the paucity of data on the importance of respiratory associated viruses to the burden of disease and the morbidity and mortality of under five children.
Acute lower Respiratory Tract Infection
Acute Respiratory Tract Infection
Brain Heart Infusion Broth
Bovine Serum Albumin
Committee for Human Research Publications and Ethic
Disability Adjusted Life Years
- Flu A:
- Flu B:
Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital
Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science and Technology
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Respiratory Syncytial Virus
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
Triple Sugar Iron agar
(World Health Organisation Integrated Management of Childhood Illness).
The study was partly supported by the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (Ghana) and the Kumasi Center for Collaborative Research in Tropical Medicine (Ghana). We will like to thank all Directorate of Child Health doctors, nurses and patients at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital. We also thank the Bonn Institute of Tropical Medicine (Germany) for supporting us with laboratory materials.
- Denny FW, Loda FA: Acute respiratory infections are the leading cause of death in children in developing countries. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1986,35(1):1-2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Williams BG, Gouws E, Boschi-Pinto C, Bryce J, Dye C: Estimates of world-wide distribution of child deaths from acute respiratory infections. Lancet Infect Dis 2002,2(1):25-32. 10.1016/S1473-3099(01)00170-0PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- World Health Organisation: Burden of disease in DALYs by sex and mortality stratum in WHO regions, estimates for 2001. The world health report 2002, 192-197.Google Scholar
- Black RE, Cousens S, Johnson HL, Lawn JE, Rudan I, Bassani DG, Jha P, Campbell H, Walker CF, Cibulskis R, et al.: Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality in 2008: a systematic analysis. Lancet 2010,375(9730):1969-1987. 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60549-1PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Meerhoff TJ, Mosnier A, Schellevis F, Paget WJ, EISS RSV Task Group: Progress in the surveillance of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in Europe: 2001-2008. Euro Surveill 2009.,14(40): pii = 19346Google Scholar
- Bellau-Pujol S, Vabret A, Legrand L, Dina J, Gouarin S, Petitjean-Lecherbonnier J, Pozzetto B, Ginevra C, Freymuth F: Development of three multiplex RT-PCR assays for the detection of 12 respiratory RNA viruses. J Virol Methods 2005,126(1-2):53-63. 10.1016/j.jviromet.2005.01.020PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Iwane MK, Edwards KM, Szilagyi PG, Walker FJ, Griffin MR, Weinberg GA, Coulen C, Poehling KA, Shone LP, Balter S, et al.: Population-Based Surveillance for Hospitalizations Associated With Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Influenza Virus, and Parainfluenza Viruses Among Young Children. Pediatrics 2004,113(6):1758-1764. 10.1542/peds.113.6.1758PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Breese Hall C, Powell KR, Schnabel KC, Gala CL, Pincus PH: Risk of secondary bacterial infection in infants hospitalized with respiratory syncytial viral infection. The Journal of pediatrics 1988,113(2):266-271. 10.1016/S0022-3476(88)80263-4View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Weber MW, Dackour R, Usen S, Schneider G, Adegbola RA, Cane P, Jaffar S, Milligan P, Greenwood BM, Whittle H, et al.: The clinical spectrum of respiratory syncytial virus disease in The Gambia. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1998,17(3):224-230. 10.1097/00006454-199803000-00010PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bisno A, BARRATT N, Swanston W, Spence L: An outbreak of acute respiratory disease in Trinidad associated with para-influenza viruses. Am J Epidemiol 1970,91(1):68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kuiken T, Fouchier RAM, Schutten M, Rimmelzwaan GF, van Amerongen G, van Riel D, Laman JD, de Jong T, van Doornum G, Lim W, et al.: Newly discovered coronavirus as the primary cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome. Lancet 2003,362(9380):263-270. 10.1016/S0140-6736(03)13967-0PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Novel SOIA, Dawood F, Jain S, Finelli L, Shaw M, Lindstrom S, Garten R, Gubareva L, Xu X, Bridges C: Emergence of a novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus in humans. N Eng J Med 2009,360(25):2605.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Centre of Excellence[http://www.kathhsp.org/aboutus1.php]
- Tulloch J: Integrated approach to child health in developing countries. Lancet 1999,354(2):16-20.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gove S: Integrated management of childhood illness by outpatient health workers: technical basis and overview. The WHO Working Group on Guidelines for Integrated Management of the Sick Child. Bull World Health Organ 1997,75(1):7-24.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Qiagen: Protocol: Purification of Viral RNA (spin Protocol). In Qiagen Viral RNA Mini Handbook. 2nd edition. Hilden, Germany; 2005:23-25.Google Scholar
- Fronhoffs S, Totzke G, Stier S, Wernert N, Rothe M, Brüning T, Koch B, Sachinidis A, Vetter H, Ko Y: A method for the rapid construction of cRNA standard curves in quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Mol Cell Probes 2002,16(2):99-110. 10.1006/mcpr.2002.0405PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Berman S: Epidemiology of Acute Respiratory Infections in Children of Developing Countries. Review of infectious diseases 1991,13(6):454-462. 10.1093/clinids/13.Supplement_6.S454View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Karaivanova GM: Viral respiratory infections and their role as public health problem in tropical countries (review). Afr J Med Med Sci 1995,24(1):1-7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Weber MW, Mulholland EK, Greenwood BM: Respiratory syncytial virus infection in tropical and developing countries. Trop Med Int Health 1998,3(4):268-280. 10.1046/j.1365-3156.1998.00213.xPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Centers For Disease Control and Prevention: Update: respiratory syncytial virus activity-United States, 1996-97 season. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1996,45(48):1053-1055.Google Scholar
- Sung RY, Chan RC, Tam JS, Cheng AF, Murray HG: Epidemiology and aetiology of acute bronchiolitis in Hong Kong infants. Epidemiol Infect 1992,108(1):147-154. 10.1017/S0950268800049591PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sung CC, Chi H, Chiu NC, Huang DT, Weng LC, Wang NY, Huang FY: Viral etiology of acute lower respiratory tract infections in hospitalized young children in Northern Taiwan. J Microbiol Immunol Infect 2011,44(3):184-190. 10.1016/j.jmii.2011.01.025PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chen HL, Chiou SS, Hsiao HP, Ke GM, Lin YC, Lin KH, Jong YJ: Respiratory adenoviral infections in children: a study of hospitalized cases in southern Taiwan in 2001-2002. J Trop Pediatr 2004,50(5):279-284. 10.1093/tropej/50.5.279PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Arden KE, McErlean P, Nissen MD, Sloots TP, Mackay IM: Frequent detection of human rhinoviruses, paramyxoviruses, coronaviruses, and bocavirus during acute respiratory tract infections. J Med Virol 2006,78(9):1232-1240. 10.1002/jmv.20689PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wong S, Pabbaraju K, Pang XL, Lee BE, Fox JD: Detection of a broad range of human adenoviruses in respiratory tract samples using a sensitive multiplex real time PCR assay. J Med Virol 2008,80(5):856-865. 10.1002/jmv.21136PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rodríguez C, José A, Daszenies C, García M, Meyer R, Gonzales R: Adenovirus pneumonia in infants and factors for developing bronchiolitis obliterans: a 5-year follow-up. Pediatr Pulmonol 2006,41(10):947-953. 10.1002/ppul.20472View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Loscertales MP, Roca A, Ventura PJ, Abacassamo F, Santos FD, Sitaube M, Menendez C, Greenwood BM, Saiz JC, Alonso PL: Epidemiology and clinical presentation of respiratory syncytial virus infection in a rural area of southern Mozambique. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2002,21(2):148. 10.1097/00006454-200202000-00013PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mathisen M, Strand TA, Sharma BN, Chandyo RK, Valentiner-Branth P, Basnet S, Adhikari RK, Hvidsten D, Shrestha PS, Sommerfelt H: Clinical presentation and severity of viral community-acquired pneumonia in young Nepalese children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2010,29(1):e1. 10.1097/INF.0b013e3181c2a1b9PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Adegbola RA, Falade AG, Sam BE, Aidoo M, Baldeh I, Hazlett D, Whittle H, Greenwood BM, Mulholland EK: The etiology of pneumonia in malnourished and well-nourished Gambian children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1994,13(11):975-982. 10.1097/00006454-199411000-00008PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nwankwo MU, Okuonghae HO, Currier G, Schuit KE: Respiratory syncytial virus infections in malnourished children. Ann Trop Paediatr 1994,14(2):125-130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Phillips P, Lehmann D, Spooner V, Barker J, Tulloch S, Sungu M, Canil K, Pratt R, Lupiwa T, Alpers M: Viruses associated with acute lower respiratory tract infections in children from the eastern highlands of Papua New Guinea (1983-1985). Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 1990,21(3):373.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wafula EM, Onyango FE, Mirza WM, Macharia WM, Wamola I, Ndinya-Achola JO, Agwanda R, Waigwa RN, Musia J: Epidemiology of Acute Respiratory Tract Infections Among Young Children in Kenya. Review of infectious diseases 1990,12(8):1035-1038. 10.1093/clinids/12.Supplement_8.S1035View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hazlett D, Bell T, Tukei P, Ademba G, Ochieng W, Magana J, Gathara G, Wafula E, Pamba A, Ndinya-Achola J: Viral etiology and epidemiology of acute respiratory infections in children in Nairobi, Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1988,39(6):632.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Forgie IM, O'Neil KP, Lloyd-Evans N, Leinonen M, Campbell H, Whittle HC, Greenwood BM: Etiology of acute lower respiratory tract infections in Gambian children: I. Acute lower respiratory tract infections in infants presenting at the hospital. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1991,10(1):33-41. 10.1097/00006454-199101000-00008PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Niang M, Diop O, Sarr F, Goudiaby D, Malou-Sompy H, Ndiaye K, Vabret A, Baril L: Viral etiology of respiratory infections in children under 5 years old living in tropical rural areas of Senegal: The EVIRA project. J Med Virol 2010,82(5):866-872. 10.1002/jmv.21665PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hall CB: Respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus. N Eng J Med 2001,344(25):1917-1928. 10.1056/NEJM200106213442507View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Henrickson KJ: Parainfluenza Viruses. Clin Microbiol Rev 2003,16(2):242-264. 10.1128/CMR.16.2.242-264.2003PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cherian T, Simoes EAF, Steinhoff MC, Chitra K, John M, Raghupathy P, John TJ: Bronchiolitis in Tropical South India. Am J Dis Child 1990,144(9):1026-1030.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- John TJ, Cherian T, Steinhoff MC, Simoes EAF, John M: Etiology of Acute Respiratory Infections in Children in Tropical Southern India. Review of infectious diseases 1991,13(6):463-469. 10.1093/clinids/13.Supplement_6.S463View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Adegbola R, Obaro S: Diagnosis of childhood pneumonia in the tropics. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 2000,94(3):197-207. 10.1080/00034980050006366PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kim PE, Musher DM, Glezen WP, Rodriguez-Barradas MC, Nahm WK, Wright CE: Association of invasive pneumococcal disease with season, atmospheric conditions, air pollution, and the isolation of respiratory viruses. Clin Infect Dis 1996,22(1):100-106. 10.1093/clinids/22.1.100PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hishiki H, Ishiwada N, Fukasawa C, Abe K, Hoshino T, Aizawa J, Ishikawa N, Kohno Y: Incidence of bacterial coinfection with respiratory syncytial virus bronchopulmonary infection in pediatric inpatients. J Infect Chemother 2011,17(1):87-90. 10.1007/s10156-010-0097-xPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Berman S, Duenas A, Bedoya A, Constain V, Leon S, Borrero I, Murphy J: Acute lower respiratory tract illnesses in Cali, Colombia: a two-year ambulatory study. Pediatrics 1983,71(2):210.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nwankwo MU, Dym AM, Schuit KE, Offor E, Omene JA: Seasonal variation in respiratory syncytial virus infections in children in Benin-City, Nigeria. Trop Geogr Med 1988,40(4):309-313.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kuypers J, Wright N, Morrow R: Evaluation of quantitative and type-specific real-time RT-PCR assays for detection of respiratory syncytial virus in respiratory specimens from children. J Clin Virol 2004,31(2):123-129. 10.1016/j.jcv.2004.03.018PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Heim A, Ebnet C, Harste G, Pring-Akerblom P: Rapid and quantitative detection of human adenovirus DNA by real-time PCR. J Med Virol 2003,70(2):228-239. 10.1002/jmv.10382PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kuypers J, Wright N, Ferrenberg J, Huang ML, Cent A, Corey L, Morrow R: Comparison of real-time PCR assays with fluorescent-antibody assays for diagnosis of respiratory virus infections in children. J Clin Microbiol 2006,44(7):2382-2388. 10.1128/JCM.00216-06PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- van Elden LJ, Nijhuis M, Schipper P, Schuurman R, van Loon AM: Simultaneous detection of influenza viruses A and B using real-time quantitative PCR. J Clin Microbiol 2001,39(1):196-200. 10.1128/JCM.39.1.196-200.2001PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.