RNA interference targeting virion core protein ORF095 inhibits Goatpox virus replication in Vero cells
- Zhixun Zhao1,
- Guohua Wu†1,
- Xueliang Zhu1,
- Xinmin Yan1,
- Yongxi Dou2,
- Jian Li1,
- Haixia Zhu1,
- Qiang Zhang1, 2Email author and
- Xuepeng Cai1, 2Email author
© Zhao et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2012
Received: 15 August 2011
Accepted: 17 February 2012
Published: 17 February 2012
Goatpox is an economically important disease in goat and sheep-producing areas of the world. Many vaccine strategies developed to control the disease are not yet completely successful. Hairpin expression vectors have been used to induce gene silencing in a large number of studies on viruses. However, none of these studies has been attempted to study GTPV. In the interest of exploiting improved methods to control goat pox, it is participated that RNAi may provide effective protection against GTPV. In this study we show the suppression of Goatpox virus (GTPV) replication via knockdown of virion core protein using RNA interference.
Four short interfering RNA (siRNA) sequences (siRNA-61, siRNA-70, siRNA-165 and siRNA-296) against a region of GTPV ORF095 were selected. Sense and antisense siRNA-encoding sequences separated by a hairpin loop sequence were designed as short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression cassettes under the control of a human U6 promoter. ORF095 amplicon was generated using PCR, and then cloned into pEGFP-N1 vector, named as p095/EGFP. p095/EGFP and each of the siRNA expression cassettes (p61, p70, p165 and p296) were co-transfected into BHK-21 cells. Fluorescence detection, flow cytometric analysis, retro transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and real time PCR were used to check the efficiency of RNAi. The results showed that the ORF095-specific siRNA-70 effectively down-regulated the expression of ORF095. When Vero cells were transfected with shRNA expression vectors (p61/GFP, p70/GFP, p165/GFP and p296/GFP) and then infected with GTPV, GTPV-ORF095-70 was found to be the most effective inhibition site in decreasing cytopathic effect (CPE) induced by GTPV. The results presented here indicated that DNA-based siRNA could effectively inhibit the replication of GTPV (approximately 463. 5-fold reduction of viral titers) on Vero cells.
This study demonstrates that vector-based shRNA methodology can effectively inhibit GTPV replication on Vero cells. Simultaneously, this work represents a strategy for controlling goatpox, potentially facilitating new experimental approaches in the analysis of both viral and cellular gene functions during of GTPV infection.
KeywordsRNAi shRNA ORF095 Goatpox virus
GTPV is a member of the Genus Capripoxvirus of the family Poxviridae , which also includes the Sheeppox virus (SPPV) and the Lumpy Skin Disease Virus (LSDV) of cattle. Both sheeppox and goatpox are endemic in Africa, the Middle East and many countries in Asia, and the diseases caused by these viruses have a significant economic impact on the livestock industry in Africa and Asia . GTPV genome is approximately 150 kbp double-stranded DNA, which composes at least 147 putative genes, including conserved replicative and structural genes and genes likely involved in virulence and host range . ORF095 encodes the virion protein which constitutes a great part of the total protein content of the virion and is essential during the assembly and disassembly of virion. It is similar to myxoma virus (MYXV) M093L (accession no.AF170726) [4, 5] and vaccinia virus (VACV) A4L (accession no.M35027) that encodes a 39 kDa acidic protein, a part of the viral core, and is synthesized at late stages after infection [6, 7].
RNA-mediated interference (RNAi) is a conserved gene-silencing mechanism, where by the double-stranded RNA matching is used as a signal to trigger the sequence-specific degradation of homologous mRNA . RNAi can be triggered by chemically synthesised and enzymatically produced 21-25 nt long RNA duplexes in mammalian cells [9, 10]. Since the effect of short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) is generally temporal in transfected animal cells, small RNA expression vectors have been developed to induce long-lasting RNA silencing in mammalian cells [11–14]. RNAi represents a new antiviral method and is being increasingly used to inhibit the replication of viral pathogens  such as foot-and-mouth disease [16, 17], porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus , Newcastle disease virus , classical swine fever virus  and Monkeypox virus . Hairpin expression vectors have been used to induce gene silencing in a large number of studies on viruses [11, 22–26].
This study provides not only an experimental basis for the development of a new anti-GTPV strategy, but also for a new approach to the study of GTPV infection and replication.
Materials and methods
Viruses and cells
Goatpox virus strain A/Goat/Qinghai/AV40/2006(a cell-adapted strain) was used in this study and maintained in African green monkey kidney cells (Vero). Baby Hamster Kidney cells (BHK-21) and the GTPV permissive cell line Vero (Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chin) were cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM; Sigma) supplemented with 10% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum (FBS; Hangzhou, China), 100 U/ml penicillin and 100 μg/ml streptomycin (Sigma). Cultures were incubated at 37°C with 5% CO2.
Construction of plasmids
Target sequence selection and vector construction
As the AAGN18UU sequence (N, any nucleotide) has been found to be preferred for siRNA-mediated gene silencing under the control of the PolU6 promoter , we searched for this sequence in the ORF of ORF095 gene. Four fragments (ORF095-61, ORF095-70, ORF095-165 and ORF095-296) in the coding region of ORF095 gene were selected according to the web-based criteria (http://www.ambion.com). These selected sequences were then submitted to a BLAST searching against human genome sequence to check whether or not these potential targets have homologues in the human genome was not targeted. To construct hairpin siRNA expression cassette, the following DNA oligonucleotides were synthesized: GTPV-ORF095-61, GTPV- ORF095-70, GTPV-ORF095-165 and GTPV-ORF095-296 (Figure 1A). The 21 nt target sequences served as a basis for the design of the two complementary 51-53mer siRNA template oligonucleotides that were synthesized, annealed, and inserted into Bam HI and Bbs I sites of the siRNA expression vectors pGPU6/Neo and pGPU6/GFP/Neo (GenePharma Co., Ltd, Shanghai, China), respectively. The recombinant plasmids were designated as p61, p61/GFP, p70, p70/GFP, p165, p165/GFP, p296 and p296/GFP. The pC and pC/GFP negative controls (GenePharma Co., Ltd, Shanghai, China) were negative control plasmid, which encode hairpin siRNA that does not have homologues in mice, human and Carpripoxvirus genome databases.
Transfection of the siRNA expression cassettes into BHK-21 cells
BHK-21 cells were seeded in six-well plates and cultured at 37°C and 5% CO2 overnight. When the cells showed 70-80% confluence, 2.5 μg of p61, p70, p165 or p296 each were cotransfected with an equal amount of p095/EGFP using FuGENE HD Transfection Reagent (Roche, Germany) according to the Manufacturer's recommendations, respectively. Simultaneously, 2.5 μg of p095/EGFP were cotransfected with 2.5 μg of pC. Non-transfected BHK-21 cells were also used as a control.
Analysis of EGFP expression in BHK-21 cells and flow cytometry assay
After an additional 24 h of incubation, cells were observed for the expression of green fluorescent protein in the transfected cells was monitoring fluorescent microscope (Olympus, Japan).
Cells were further subjected to fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). At 48 h posttransfection, the transfected cells and the controls were washed gently in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), trypsinized and resuspended in PBS. EGFP positive cells and EGFP expression signal were evaluated by the FACS Calibur Flow Cytometry System (Becton Dickinson, USA).
Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR
To confirm the efficacy of RNAi, RT-PCR was used to amplify the target gene in the transfected cells. Total RNA was extracted from BHK-21 culture with Trizol reagent (TaKaRa, Dalian), and incubated for 1 h at 37°C with Dnase RQ1 (TaKaRa, Dalian). To detect ORF095 mRNA expression in BHK-21 cells, RT-PCR was conducted using 1.8 μg of RNA extracts with Superscript one-step RT-PCR system (Gibco, BRL). Retrotranscription β-actin as a control was also amplified using the Primers 5'-CACCCGCGAGTACAACCTTC-3' (sense) and 5'-CCCATACCCACCATCACACC-3' (antisense). PCR was run for 30 cycles with 95°C for 30 s, 56°C for 45 s and 72°C for 45 s. To verify primer specificity, a melting curve was analyzed, and RT-PCR products were further cloned into pMD18-T for sequencing.
Real-time PCR analysis
In order to use full-length ORF095 gene as a quantitative RT-PCR standard, Selected primer sequences were CTGTCTACATGATTAACCCACTCGTTCTTC (ORF095 FP primer), and GAAGTCGACTAC CCCTCTCCCTATCAGGGTCATC (ORF095 RP primer). One additional primer was synthesized for quantification of the ORF095 in real-time PCR: 5-FAM-CCTTGCTCGCGAATTTCTCACCGATAMRA- 3 (TaqMan probe). The target region of real time RT-PCR was 263-389 bp of ORF095.
For quantitative analysis of the ORF095 gene, 100 ng total RNA from p095/EGFP-transfected cells was mixed with 1 μL ORF095 primer, heated to 65°C for 5 min and chilled on ice for 2 min. To this primer template mix was added 5× buffer (4 μL), 10 mmol/μL dNTP (1 μL), RNasin (1 μL), AMV reverse transcriptase (1 μL, Promega, USA) and ddH2O to a total volume of 20 μL. The reaction mixture was incubated at 42°C for 45 min, followed by inactivation of reverse transcriptase at 75°C for 15 min. Real-time PCR was performed with the ABI PRISM 7000 Sequence Detection System using 2 μL transcriptase products as template under the conditions of 95°C for 15 min, followed by 50 cycles of denaturation at 95°C for 30 s, annealing, and extension at 60°C for 30 s. The quantitative standard curve for determination of ORF095 copy number was created by real-time PCR of standard plasmid p095/EGFP serial 10-fold dilutions of a stock containing 108 copies/μL. The specificity of the real-time PCR was confirmed by sequencing of the product.
Transfection and GTPV infection Vero cells
Four siRNAs targeting ORF095 were designed to inhibit GTPV ORF095 gene expression in BHK-21 cells. We used a modified CMV promoter, a typical RNA polIII promoter, to drive the transcription of the siRNAs. To monitor the effects of the siRNAs, eukaryotic expression plasmid p095/EGFP was constructed, in which the ORF095 gene were fused to the 5'-end of the EGFP coding sequence, and cotransfected with their specific siRNA expression plasmids. So the inhibitory effects of the ORF095-specific siRNAs on the ORF095 expression could be indirectly evaluated by the expression of EGFP in the transfected cells.
To test whether the expressed siRNAs inhibited GTPV production, we first assessed the growing capacity of GTPV in Vero cells expressing siRNAs. Vero cells were seeded in six-well plates and cultured at 37°C and 5% CO2 overnight. When the cell reached 70-80% confluence, 2.5 μg of p61/GFP, p70/GFP, p165/GFP or p296/GFP each were cotransfected with an equal amount of pC/GFP as described above, respectively. The nonspecific vector pC/GFP and non-transfected Vero cells were also used as a control. 24 h posttransfection, the cells were infected with GTPV at a multiplicity of infection (moi) of about 0.01. Briefly, after removing the culture medium, GTPV (200 μl) in infection medium (2.5 μg/ml trypsin), respectively, were added to each well. The cultures were then incubated at 37°C, 5% CO2 for 4 h, at which point the culture medium was replaced with fresh DMEM containing 2% fetal bovine serum.
To determine transfection efficiency, we monitored GFP fluorescence intensity of transfected cells using fluorescent microscope analysis. Culture supernatants were collected for virus titration. Six days post infection, supernatants was harvested from the infected cultures and virus titer (TCID50) was determined three times on Vero cells.
Virus infectivity was determined by serial dilutions of the samples in 96-well plates and the virus titer was calculated as a TCID50 by the Reed-Muench method . A viral suspension titrated at 10-1 to 10-8 TCID50 per 0.1 ml was used for viral challenge. Vero cells (about 80% confluent) grown in 96-well plates were transiently transfected with 0.1 μg p61/GFP, p70/GFP, p165/GFP and p296/GFP, respectively, per well. After 6 h of transfected, the transfection medium was removed and the cells were washed twice with DMEM medium. The transfected cells were then infected with 100 TCID50 of virus per 0.1 ml per well. After additional 1 h incubation, the inoculum was removed and the cells were washed twice with DMEM medium. The cells were then maintained in DMEM medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum for 6 days. For detecting the therapeutic potential of siRNA, in another parallel experiment, transfection was performed 1 h post-infection with the virus. GTPV replication in Vero cells was evaluated by virus titer (TCID50).
Transient cellular transfection and analysis of the targeted gene and EGFP expression in BHK-21 cells
The inhibitory effects of the siRNAs on expression of EGFP were quantitatively validated by flow cytometry 48 h posttransfection. The extent of EGFP down regulation was assessed by the mean fluorescence of the positive cells (LR-values) and the rate of EGFP positive cells (Figure 3B). Compared with the pC, the LR-values of the EGFP positive cells were reduced in the cells transfected with ORF095 siRNA-specific expression plasmids p61, p70, p165 and p296, and were reduced by 90.9%, 96.7%, 66.0%and 69.32%, respectively.
Interference of GTPV replication by shRNA expression vector
Dose-dependent inhibitory effect of shRNA expression vector p70/GFP
RNAi is a process of sequence-specific, post-transcriptional gene silencing that is initiated by double stranded RNA. Introduction of siRNA results in degradation of siRNA specific transcripts thus reducing the expression of their protein product. In plants, it is a natural antiviral defense mechanism . In mammalian cells, however, dsRNAs longer than 30 nt activate an antiviral defense leading to the nonspecific degradation of RNA transcripts and a general shutdown of host-cell protein translation . The successful use of siRNA in animal cells encouraged the development of siRNA expression vector  and numerous studies have demonstrated that DNA-based siRNA is a promising approach for antiviral therapy in mammals. RNAi represents a new antiviral method and is being increasingly used to inhibit the replication of viral pathogens , such as HIV-1 , hepatitis C , influenza , severe acute respiratory syndrome and hepatitis E viruses . This study has demonstrated the use of pGPU6/Neo or pGPU6/GFP/Neo vector-based RNAi against GTPV, a major pathogen of goats and sheep. Four different siRNA targeting viral gene ORF095, one key gene involved in GTPV replication, successfully reduced viral replication.
The results showed that the ORF095-specific siRNAs p70 could effectively down-regulate the expression of ORF095, while p61, p165 and p296 displayed weak activity. Additionally, expression of the housekeeping gene β-actin was also analyzed by RT-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR, and no significant difference in the expression of β-actin was observed between the siRNAs treatment groups and pC treatment groups.
Different siRNA sequences display widely different efficacies with regard to suppression of gene expression, requiring screening of multiple sequences . In this research, we have selected four target sequences for RNA interference by the software applications, "siRNA Target Finder and Design Tool" available at http://www.ambion.com/. As the ORF095 gene is well conserved in GTPV and ORF095 protein is a virion core protein and assembly protein in GTPV, we selected ORF095 as a target gene. In order to generate shRNA expression cassettes quickly and accurately, we employed a PCR-based strategy to clone siRNA sequences. In this strategy, siRNA sequences were designed as a single primer sequence of which 19 bp complementary to the human U6 promoter were added. The resulting PCR products are shRNA expression cassettes including the human U6 promoter. shRNAs that have been generated from this expression system are efficiently processed by dicer into siRNAs. In addition, in this study, we selected pEGFP-N1 vector that contains an EGFP gene as report gene and can be transfected into mammalian cells using any standard transfection method.
Vero cells transfected with p61/GFP, p70/GFP, p165/GFP, p296/GFP and pC/GFP were examined for CPE by virus titration. All results demonstrated that siRNA-70 is the most effective one, and result showed that minimum concentration of the construct p70/GFP is 2.5 μg required to induce maximum inhibition.
Blasting ORF095 sequence in GenBank revealed that there were 8 Capripoxvirus isolates containing identical sequence corresponding to ORF095. In view of the sequences of the ORF095 genes of GTPV strains from the same genotype, they all share high homology (95-100%). Therefore, ORF095 gene is a good target to suppress GTPV replication by RNAi.
In conclusion, this study demonstrates that vector-based shRNA methodology can effectively inhibit GTPV replication on Vero cells. Further study will be required to determine whether such treatment protect against GTPV infection in vivo. Still, this work represents a strategy for controlling goatpox, potentially facilitating new experimental approaches in the analysis of both viral and cellular gene functions during of GTPV infection.
Short interference RNA
Short hairpin RNA
Green fluorescent protein
Enhanced green fluorescent protein
pEGFP-N1 expression ORF095 gene cassette
- p61 p70:
p165, p296 and pC were siRNA-61, 70, 165, 196 and control expression cassettes pGU6/Neo plasmids
- p61/GFP p70/GFP:
p165/GFP, p296/GFP and pC/GFP were siRNA-61, 70, 165, 196 and control expression cassettes pGU6/GFP/Neo plasmids
Polymerase chain reaction
Retro transcription PCR
Lumpy Skin Disease Virus
Baby Hamster Kidney cells
African green monkey kidney cells
Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium
Fetal bovine serum
Fluorescence-activated cell sorting
Multiplicity of infection
We thank Yadong Zheng for thoughtful discussions and assistance during manuscript preparation. The study was supported by grants from the China's Ministry of Agriculture Genetically Modified Organisms Breeding Technology Major Program (no. 2009ZX08008-010B) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (no.31001056-C1803).
- Nawathe DR, Asagba MO, Abegunde A, Ajayi SA, Durkwa L: Some observations on the occurrence of lumpy skin disease in Nigeria. Zentralbl Veterinarmed B 1982, 29: 31-36.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Carn VM: Control of capripoxvirus infections. Vaccine 1993, 11: 1275-1279. 10.1016/0264-410X(93)90094-EPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tulman ER, Afonso CL, Lu Z, Zsak L, Sur JH, Sandybaev NT, Kerembekova UZ, Zaitsev VL, Kutish GF, Rock DL: The genomes of sheeppox and goatpox viruses. J Virol 2002, 76: 6054-6061. 10.1128/JVI.76.12.6054-6061.2002PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Johnston JB, Barrett JW, Nazarian SH, Goodwin M, Ricciuto D, Wang G, McFadden G: A poxvirus-encoded pyrin domain protein interacts with ASC-1 to inhibit host inflammatory and apoptotic responses to infection. Immunity 2005, 23: 587-598. 10.1016/j.immuni.2005.10.003PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Van Vliet K, Mohamed MR, Zhang L, Villa NY, Werden SJ, Liu J, McFadden G: Poxvirus proteomics and virus-host protein interactions. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 2009, 73: 730-749. 10.1128/MMBR.00026-09PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kovacs GR, Moss B: The vaccinia virus H5R gene encodes late gene transcription factor 4: purification, cloning, and overexpression. J Virol 1996, 70: 6796-6802.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Maa JS, Esteban M: Structural and functional studies of a 39,000-Mr immunodominant protein of vaccinia virus. J Virol 1987, 61: 3910-3919.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Sharp PA, Zamore PD: Molecular biology. RNA interference. Science 2000, 287: 2431-2433. 10.1126/science.287.5462.2431PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Elbashir SM, Harborth J, Lendeckel W, Yalcin A, Weber K, Tuschl T: Duplexes of 21-nucleotide RNAs mediate RNA interference in cultured mammalian cells. Nature 2001, 411: 494-498. 10.1038/35078107PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sohail M, Doran G, Riedemann J, Macaulay V, Southern EM: A simple and cost-effective method for producing small interfering RNAs with high efficacy. Nucleic Acids Res 2003, 31: e38. 10.1093/nar/gng038PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Brummelkamp TR, Bernards R, Agami R: A system for stable expression of short interfering RNAs in mammalian cells. Science 2002, 296: 550-553. 10.1126/science.1068999PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pinkenburg O, Platz J, Beisswenger C, Vogelmeier C, Bals R: Inhibition of NF-kappaB mediated inflammation by siRNA expressed by recombinant adeno-associated virus. J Virol Methods 2004, 120: 119-122. 10.1016/j.jviromet.2004.04.007PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rubinson DA, Dillon CP, Kwiatkowski AV, Sievers C, Yang L, Kopinja J, Rooney DL, Zhang M, Ihrig MM, McManus MT, Gertler FB, Scott ML, Van Parijs L: A lentivirus-based system to functionally silence genes in primary mammalian cells, stem cells and transgenic mice by RNA interference. Nat Genet 2003, 33: 401-406. 10.1038/ng1117PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhao LJ, Jian H, Zhu H: Specific gene inhibition by adenovirus-mediated expression of small interfering RNA. Gene 2003, 316: 137-141.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- He YX, Hua RH, Zhou YJ, Qiu HJ, Tong GZ: Interference of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus replication on MARC-145 cells using DNA-based short interfering RNAs. Antiviral Res 2007, 74: 83-91. 10.1016/j.antiviral.2006.04.013PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Haasnoot J, Westerhout EM, Berkhout B: RNA interference against viruses: strike and counterstrike. Nat Biotechnol 2007, 25: 1435-1443. 10.1038/nbt1369PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Luo J, Du J, Gao S, Zhang G, Sun J, Cong G, Shao J, Lin T, Chang H: Lentviral-mediated RNAi to inhibit target gene expression of the porcine integrin av subunit, the FMDV receptor, and against FMDV infection in PK-15 cells. Virol J 2011, 8: 428. 10.1186/1743-422X-8-428PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chen W, Liu M, Jiao Y, Yan W, Wei X, Chen J, Fei L, Liu Y, Zuo X, Yang F, Lu Y, Zheng Z: Adenovirus-mediated RNA interference against foot-and-mouth disease virus infection both in vitro and in vivo. J Virol 2006, 80: 3559-3566. 10.1128/JVI.80.7.3559-3566.2006PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yin R, Ding Z, Liu X, Mu L, Cong Y, Stoeger T: Inhibition of Newcastle disease virus replication by RNA interference targeting the matrix protein gene in chicken embryo fibroblasts. J Virol Methods 2010, 167: 107-111. 10.1016/j.jviromet.2010.02.014PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Li J, Guo H, Shi Z, Tu C: In vitro inhibition of CSFV replication by retroviral vector-mediated RNA interference. J Virol Methods 2010, 169: 316-321. 10.1016/j.jviromet.2010.07.036PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Alkhalil A, Strand S, Mucker E, Huggins JW, Jahrling PB, Ibrahim SM: Inhibition of Monkeypox virus replication by RNA interference. Virol J 2009, 6: 188. 10.1186/1743-422X-6-188PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Brummelkamp TR, Bernards R, Agami R: Stable suppression of tumorigenicity by virus-mediated RNA interference. Cancer Cell 2002, 2: 243-247. 10.1016/S1535-6108(02)00122-8PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- McCaffrey AP, Nakai H, Pandey K, Huang Z, Salazar FH, Xu H, Wieland SF, Marion PL, Kay MA: Inhibition of hepatitis B virus in mice by RNA interference. Nat Biotechnol 2003, 21: 639-644. 10.1038/nbt824PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Miyagishi M, Taira K: U6 promoter-driven siRNAs with four uridine 3' overhangs efficiently suppress targeted gene expression in mammalian cells. Nat Biotechnol 2002, 20: 497-500. 10.1038/nbt0502-497PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Paddison PJ, Caudy AA, Sachidanandam R, Hannon GJ: Short hairpin activated gene silencing in mammalian cells. Methods Mol Biol 2004, 265: 85-100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Paul CP, Good PD, Winer I, Engelke DR: Effective expression of small interfering RNA in human cells. Nat Biotechnol 2002, 20: 505-508. 10.1038/nbt0502-505PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Elbashir SM, Harborth J, Weber K, Tuschl T: Analysis of gene function in somatic mammalian cells using small interfering RNAs. Methods 2002, 26: 199-213. 10.1016/S1046-2023(02)00023-3PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Reed LJ, Muench HA: A simple method of estimating fifty percent end points. Am J Hyg 1938, 27: 493-497.Google Scholar
- Goff A, Twenhafel N, Garrison A, Mucker E, Lawler J, Paragas J: In vivo imaging of cidofovir treatment of cowpox virus infection. Virus Res 2007, 128: 88-98. 10.1016/j.virusres.2007.04.014PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nilsen TW, Maroney PA, Baglioni C: Maintenance of protein synthesis in spite of mRNA breakdown in interferon-treated HeLa cells infected with reovirus. Mol Cell Biol 1983, 3: 64-69.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Miyagishi M, Taira K: Development and application of siRNA expression vector. Nucleic Acids Res Suppl 2002, 2: 113-114.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Novina CD, Murray MF, Dykxhoorn DM, Beresford PJ, Riess J, Lee SK, Collman RG, Lieberman J, Shankar P, Sharp PA: siRNA-directed inhibition of HIV-1 infection. Nat Med 2002, 8: 681-686.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sen A, Steele R, Ghosh AK, Basu A, Ray R, Ray RB: Inhibition of hepatitis C virus protein expression by RNA interference. Virus Res 2003, 96: 27-35. 10.1016/S0168-1702(03)00170-9PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ge Q, Filip L, Bai A, Nguyen T, Eisen HN, Chen J: Inhibition of influenza virus production in virus-infected mice by RNA interference. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2004, 101: 8676-8681. 10.1073/pnas.0402486101PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Akerstrom S, Mirazimi A, Tan YJ: Inhibition of SARS-CoV replication cycle by small interference RNAs silencing specific SARS proteins, 7a/7b, 3a/3b and S. Antiviral Res 2007, 73: 219-227. 10.1016/j.antiviral.2006.10.008PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Huang F, Hua X, Yang S, Yuan C, Zhang W: Effective inhibition of hepatitis E virus replication in A549 cells and piglets by RNA interference (RNAi) targeting RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Antiviral Res 2009, 83: 274-281. 10.1016/j.antiviral.2009.06.008PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Amarzguioui M, Rossi JJ, Kim D: Approaches for chemically synthesized siRNA and vector-mediated RNAi. FEBS Lett 2005, 579: 5974-5981. 10.1016/j.febslet.2005.08.070PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.