The matrix (M) protein of newcastle disease virus binds to human bax through its BH3 domain
© Molouki et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2011
Received: 15 May 2011
Accepted: 3 August 2011
Published: 3 August 2011
The underlying mechanisms by which Newcastle disease virus (NDV) kills cancer cells are still unclear. Recent discoveries have shown that many viruses contain Bcl-2 homology-like domains which enabled their interaction with Bcl-2 family members, and thereby accounting for their virulence and pathogenicity. Alignment of the protein sequences of Malaysian strain of NDV, known as AF2240, with those from members of the human Bcl-2 family showed many similar regions; most notably we found that its matrix (AF2240-M) protein, large (AF2240-L) protein and fusion (AF2240-F) protein all contain BH3-like regions. In addition, there are BH1-like domains in these proteins, where AF2240-F and Mcl-1 share 55% identity within this region. To further investigate our hypothesis that the presence of the BH3-like domains in these proteins may convey cytotoxicity, AF2240-M and AF2240-F genes were cloned into pFLAG and pEGFP.N2 vectors and transfected into HeLa cells. The expression of these constructs promoted cell death. As shown by flow cytometry, AF2240-M protein with deleted BH3-like region showed five-fold decrease in apoptosis. Moreover, the construct containing the N-terminal of AF2240-M showed nearly the same cell death rate as to that of the full-length protein, strongly suggesting that the BH3-like domain within this protein participates in promoting cell death. Moreover, AF2240-M transfection promoted Bax redistribution to mitochondria. Therefore, to determine whether there is any direct interaction between NDV viral proteins with some members of the Bcl-2 family, various constructs were co-transfected into HeLa cells. Co-immunoprecipitation trials showed that the AF2240-M indeed directly interacted with Bax protein via its BH3-domain, as the mutant proteins failed to interact with Bax. AF2240-F failed to interact with any of the tested proteins, although Bcl-XL slowed down the rate of cell death caused by this construct by nearly five-fold. In a parallel experiment, the level of expression of endogenous Bax and Bcl-2 after infection of HeLa cells with NDV was assessed by qRT-PCR, but no statistically significant change was observed. Consequently, the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio at the mRNA level did not alter. Overall, our study has shed additional light into the mechanisms by which NDV induces apoptosis.
KeywordsNDV AF2240 Apoptosis Matrix protein Fusion protein Bcl-2 homology domain Protein-protein interaction HeLa
Newcastle disease virus (NDV), an avian paramyxovirus, affects most species of birds and is considered one of the most devastating viruses that can cause great economic damage to the poultry industry . Its many strains have been mainly categorised by its pathotype and clinical effects rather than by its structure. Strain AF2240 is a viscerotropic velogenic strain of NDV that causes a high mortality rate and was isolated during an outbreak in the country in the 1960s. It is now used as the challenge virus in vaccine trials in Malaysia .
NDV belongs to the genus Avulavirus from the family of Paramyxoviridae. It has a non-segmented single-stranded negative-sense RNA genome of nearly 15 kb [4–6]. The virion is enveloped with a lipid bilayer membrane derived from the host cell membrane . This structure consists of 6 proteins. HN and F fusion glycoproteins are embedded in the lipid membrane. The matrix (M) protein is associated with the inner surface of the membrane. Inside the virion, three proteins, nucleocapsid (NP), phosphoprotein (P), and large (L) protein, constitute the viral transcriptase complex. The interaction between these macromolecules and their binding domains have yet to be defined completely . Upon entry into the host cell, NDV genome is subjected to two separate mechanisms of transcription and replication that result in the production of more viruses.
The F glycoprotein mediates virus fusion with the host cellular membrane. Its gene has 1791 bp with an open reading frame of 1662 bp and it codes for F0 precursor with 553 amino acids. The precursor is then cleaved at residues 116-117 to generate F1 and F2 disulphide-linked polypeptides [8, 9]. The transmembrane domain of F is located at the C-terminal region of F1. Three hapted repeat sites have been reported that are strain specific  and also six glycosylation sites have been previously identified .
The M gene of strain AF2240 has 1223 bp with an ORF of 1093 bp. Its translated product contains 364 amino acids for all reported strains and has a molecular weight of approximately 40 kDa . It is relatively hydrophobic and non-glycosylated with many basic residues. It has been reported that M is associated with the N-terminal segment of HN protein located in its inner surface . It is also believed that it interacts with the NP protein, but the exact binding domains are yet to be determined . The nucleocapsid itself is a herringbone-like structure comprising thousands of NP subunits that are associated tightly with several copies of P and L proteins.
NDV appears to selectively kill cancer cells while sparing normal human cells . It is believed that NDV kills avian cells and human cancer cells by apoptosis [14–16]. On the other hand, cell death through apoptosis is initiated via either intrinsic or extrinsic pathway . The Bcl-2 family of proteins plays an important role in the regulation of mitochondrial checkpoints that are involved in both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathways . These proteins display both pro- and anti-apoptotic functions  and have one or more of the conserved domains known as the Bcl-2 homology (BH) domains 1 to 4. These family members can interact with each other or other proteins via these conserved domains.
Numerous publications have demonstrated the anti- or pro-apoptotic effects of viruses and their respective viral proteins in eukaryotic cells , but it is only recently that researchers have begun to investigate the sequence similarity between viral proteins and cellular apoptotic proteins. Since the late 20th century, it was shown that some viruses contain protein homologs to Bcl-2 family members and that many of these domains enable these proteins to interact with Bcl-2 family members [21–29]. These studies provide an initial clue on the underlying mechanisms behind the apoptosis regulating effect of these viruses.
Here, we report for the first time that NDV viral proteins contain BH domain-like regions, and that AF2240-M and AF2240-F display pro-apoptotic effect in HeLa cells. Previously, it was shown that strain AF2240 has a different HN protein compared to that of other strains . However, now we show that there are additional unique features within the BH1- and BH3-like regions in M, F and L proteins of strain AF2240, and that AF2240-M interacts with human Bax protein by its BH3 domain.
Materials and methods
Human cervical cancer cell line, HeLa, was purchased from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), 100 U of penicillin/ml and 100 μg of streptomycin/ml in 5% CO2 at 37°C, and routinely checked for mycoplasma contamination. The cells were infected with NDV as previously described .
Real-Time RT-PCR was performed with a two-step system optimized for use with Rotor-Gene 6000 Real-Time PCR machine (Corbett, Australia). Briefly, at different time points post-infection, HeLa cells were harvested and total cellular RNA was isolated using RNeasy Mini kit (Qiagen, USA). cDNA was prepared with a QuantiTect® RT system (Qiagen, USA) according to manufacturer's instructions. Next, normalized cDNAs were used in a Hotstart qPCR with Rotor-Gene SYBR green kit (Qiagen, USA) together with Bax and Bcl-2 QuantiTect primer sets (Qiagen, USA). The cycling conditions started with initial 5 min at 95°C followed by 35-40 two-step cycles of 5 sec at 95°C and 10 sec at 60°C. A melting curve analysis was performed in the end of the reaction to verify the specificity and identity of the PCR products. Finally, the ΔΔCt [= (Ct of target gene in sample - Ct of housekeeping gene in sample) - (Ct of target gene in control - Ct of housekeeping gene in control)] and expression (2-ΔΔCt) values were calculated.
Protein sequence analysis
All protein sequence alignments were performed with SIM+LALNVIEW at ExPASy proteomics server http://184.108.40.206/tools/sim-prot.html. Protein BLAST (BL2SEQ) was used to identify sequence similarities between NDV viral proteins and human cellular proteins. Prediction of transmembrane helix and intervening loop region was done by TMHMM software, and prediction of secondary structures was done by PELE software, both of which are located at San Diego supercomputer center server http://workbench.sdsc.edu/.
Total RNA was extracted with QIAamp Viral RNA Mini Kit (Qiagen, USA) from pure stock of Malaysian strain of NDV strain AF2240, which was grown in 9-day old embryonated chicken eggs and purified as previously described . cDNA was made with RevertAid kit (Fermentas, USA). Specific primers were used for amplifying the cDNAs to enable tagging and cloning of AF2240-M and AF2240-F viral genes. The PCR primers used for subcloning the AF2240-M gene into pFLAG-CMV-5a vector (Mammalian carboxy-terminal FLAG transient expression kit, Sigma, USA) were 5'-CTTGGAATTC ACC ATGGACTCATCCAGGGCAATC-3' for forward and 5'-CTTGGTCGAC TTTTTTGAAAGGGTTGTATTTAGC-3' for reverse. The pFLAG-M-N-terminal mutant was generated by the same forward primer but with a different reverse primer, 5'-CTTGGTCGAC TTGTGGGGTGATTTGCTTCTT-3' to amplify 40 a.a. of the N-terminal. The AF2240-F gene primers used for PCR amplification and subcloning into the same vector were 5'-CTTGGAATTC ACC ATGGGCTCCAAGTCTTCTACC-3' for forward and 5'-CTTGGTCGAC TGTTCTTGTGGTGGCTCTCAT-3' for reverse. Restriction endonuclease sites EcoR I and Sal I were chosen for subcloning the PCR fragments into the MCS site of the pFLAG vector. The AF2240-M gene PCR primers used for subcloning into pEGFP.N2 (Clontech, USA) were 5'-AGCTCAAGATCT ACC ATGGACTCATCCAGGGCA-3' for forward and 5'-GAGGTCAAGCTT GC GAAAGGGTTGTATTTAGCA-3' for reverse (restriction endonuclease sites Bgl II and Hin dIII) having two extra nucleotides (in bold) to clone in the same reading frame of the EGFP tag. Also, a Kozak's ACC sequence (in bold) was included in all forward primers to promote the translation of the target genes in eukaryotic cells. PCR was carried out with a recombinant pfu DNA polymerase (Fermentas, USA). All PCR products were gel purified and were first cloned into pJET vector (CloneJET PCR cloning kit, Fermentas, USA) to increase PCR product quantity and enhance the chance of cloning to the main target vectors. Generation of pGFP-Bax, pGFP-Bad and pGFP-Bcl-XL has been described previously . pcDNA3-FLAG-BimL was a kind gift from Professor Roger Davis, MIT Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. All plasmids were transformed into TOP10 E. coli, grown in LB broth and extracted with PureLink kit from Invitrogen.
Generation of AF2240-M-ΔBH3 deletion mutant
The plasmid pFLAG-M-ΔBH3 was produced by deletion of the BH3-like domain in AF2240-M gene. Briefly, two primers flanking the region between base pairs 67-111 were designed in a way to not disturb the FLAG-tag reading frame (Forward: 5'-ACCCCACAATACAGGATCCAG-3' and Reverse: 5'-TGCTAATAGGCTGCTGGAGGGAAG-3'). PCR was run for 20 cycles with 50 ng of pFLAG-M as template. Recombinant pfu DNA polymerase was used to proof-read the entire product. Later, the PCR product was subjected to digestion with Dpn 1 enzyme to eliminate the methylated template DNA. After gel purification, the linear PCR product was ligated with T4 ligase for 3 h at RT, and then transformed into TOP10 E. coli.
Co-transfection and fluorescent microscopy
For transfection, HeLa cells were cultured in 10 cm in diameter plates at 2 × 105 cells/plate. The next day, at a confluency of 70-80%, the medium was removed and cells were washed with PBS. Transfection or co-transfection of cloned plasmids were done with Lipofectamine LTX and PLUS reagent (Invitrogen, USA) according to manufacturer's instructions. Cells were analyzed between 12 h to 48 h post-transfection by flow cytometery, co-immunoprecipitation, light and fluorescent microscopy.
Flow cytometry and PI staining
On the day of experiment, cells were detached with Accutase (PAA, USA) and washed with cold PBS (pH 7.4). Floating cells in medium which had died after transfection were also collected. The pellets were resuspended in ice-cold absolute ethanol to fix cells. Cells were kept in -20°C freezer until they were pelleted down at the time of experiment. Three hundred microliters of Propidium iodide (1 μg/ml) containing 10 μg/ml DNase-free RNase A in PBS was added to each fixed cell pellet. The pellets were resuspended and incubated for 10 min before addition of a same volume of sheath buffer. The stained cells were then analyzed with BD FACSCanto II flow cytometer. The data were analysed with BD FACSDiva and Cyflogic softwares.
Subcellular fractionation was performed as previously described . Briefly, transfected cells were collected at different time points and resuspended in mitochondrial buffer (70 mM Tris-HCl, 0.25 M sucrose and 1 mM EDTA, pH 7.4). An equal volume of ice-cold digitonin lysis buffer (2 mg/ml, 19.8 mM EDTA, 0.25 M D-mannitol and 19.8 mM MOPS, pH 7.4) was added for 90 s. Samples were then centrifuged twice at 300 g for 5 min to pellet the nuclei. The supernatant was further centrifuged at 17,000 g for 20 min to separate mitochondria from the cytosol. The supernatant was then subjected to SDS-PAGE and Western blotting with mouse monoclonal anti-Bax 2D2 antibody (Invitrogen, USA).
In order to study protein-protein interactions, the co-immunoprecipitation approach was tried. A FLAG kit (Sigma, USA) was used in all Co-IP trials. Briefly, all transfected cells were harvested and washed with PBS twice before being resuspended in 100 μL of 2% CHAPS lysis buffer (2% CHAPS, 10 mM HEPES pH 7.4, 150 mM NaCl, and 1 tablet of Roche cOmplete™ protease inhibitor) [33, 34]. After quantification with Bradford method, the normalized cell lysates were added to 0.5 mL microtubes containing 40 μL of anti-FLAG M2 affinity gel. For positive control, 200 ng of FLAG-BAP™ fusion protein was used. The microtubes were rotated end-to-end at 4°C overnight. After incubation, the microtubes were centrifuged at 8000 g for 30 sec. The supernatants were removed and the resins were washed twice with 0.5% CHAPS buffer. The cleaned resins were then resuspended in 30 μL of SDS-PAGE sample buffer and boiled for 10 min. The microtubes were then centrifuged at maximum speed for 5 min and the supernatants were used in SDS-PAGE and Western blotting.
SDS-PAGE and Western blotting
Proteins in the SDS-polyacrylamide gel were electrotransferred onto Immobilon-P membrane (Millipore Corp., USA) and after transferring, the membrane was blocked with a casein buffer (Pierce, USA). The membrane was incubated either with a monoclonal anti-FLAG clone M2 raised in mouse (Sigma, USA), or polyclonal anti-GFP ab290 raised in rabbit (Abcam, USA) at a dilution of 1:1000 overnight at 4°C. The blot was then respectively incubated with an AP-conjugated goat anti-mouse (Bethyl, USA), or AP-conjugated goat anti-rabbit (Sigma, USA) at a dilution of 1:1000 for 1 h at room temperature. NBT/BCIP alkaline phosphatase buffer (100 mM Tris-HCl pH 9.5, 100 mM NaCl, 10 mM MgCl2, containing 3 mg/ml NBT and 1.5 mg/ml BCIP) was used to develop the blotted membrane (Fermentas, USA).
All statistical analyses were performed by Microsoft Excel. All error bars indicate the standard error of the mean (SEM). p-values less than 0.05 (*), 0.01 (**) and 0.001 (***) reject the null hypothesis and are referred as statistically significant.
Infection of HeLa cells with NDV did not alter Bax and Bcl-2 mRNA levels
Multiple BH domain-like regions in NDV viral proteins
Homologous regions between NDV viral proteins and human cellular proteins.
B-cell transcription factor 4 leukemia
27 LQDTGDGKKQI 38 LQDTGDILQQI
Glucagon-like 1 receptor
*** **** **
Cholecystokinin B receptor
* *** *****
Fibrous sheath-interacting 2
*** ** *
Spectrin beta chain, brain 4
**** * * ***
RAS p21 protein activator
** ** ***
80 DNPGHEL 95 DALGHEL
** *** *
86 LRTYVR 2145 LRTYLR
F-box protein FBW7
Subsequently, the BH3-like regions of AF2240 proteins were aligned with each other to investigate their similarity (Figure 2E). The AF2240-HN glycoprotein, which showed low similarity to those of Bcl-2 family, surprisingly, had up to six matching residues with AF2240-F glycoprotein. Although this region is not entirely considered a BH3-like region, AF2240-HN only lacked one conserved residue, glycine.
AF2240 shows unique features compared to other strains
The BH3-like region on AF2240-F protein is located within F glycoprotein F2 sequence between a.a. 88 to 102 (Figure 4C), right before the cleavage site at a.a. 116-117. BH1-like region of AF2240-F is located in the C-terminal end between a.a. 411-419, located on F1 before the transmembrane domain at a.a. 501-527 . This observation was further confirmed by TMHMM prediction software (data not shown). Both Bcl-2 homology domain-like regions on AF2240-F are not within any of the hapted repeats or glycosylation sites.
Compared to members of the Bcl-2 family, the Bax protein has the highest identity-hits with AF2240-M. Subsequently, we also found out that the Bax protein has the highest sequence homology with AF2240-M protein compared to other tested NDV strains. We also found a homologous sequence WDSLLSY (Table 1), with 85.7% identity to the α-8 helix sequence of Bax protein. This sequence is a part of the BH2 domain of Bax  and surprisingly, no other Bcl-2 family member shows any higher homology rate with Bax, than AF2240-M does.
The PELE software also showed that BH3-like regions of AF2240-L, AF2240-F and AF2240-M were all in random-coil regions and the BH3-like region of AF2240-F is right after a Beta-strand, but none of them are in helical areas, unlike those of many Bcl-2 family members.
AF2240-M and AF2240-F transfections promote apoptosis
To determine the role of the BH3 domain in NDV viral protein-induced cell death, we truncated the BH3 domain of M and transfected the resulting mutant construct into HeLa cells. As shown in Figure 5A, truncation of the BH3 domain resulted in a nearly five-fold decrease in cell death compared to the wild-type AF2240-M (from 21.49% down to 4.32%). In addition, we showed that transfection of the plasmid containing the N-terminal segment of AF2240-M (40 a.a.) also led to apoptosis, and the rate was almost comparable to the full-length AF2240-M (21.21%). pFLAG-F showed 12% less cell death compared to pFLAG-M and this was further evaluated by histogram analyses shown in Figure 5B. We observed a shift for the G0/G1 phase peak in the cells transfected with pFLAG-M and pFLAG-F compared to untransfected cells, although the reading threshold was kept constant for each sample (10,000 events/run).
AF2240-M binds to human Bax
AF2240-M interacts by its BH3 domain
Our previous results did not show any significant changes in the total levels of Bax and Bcl-2 proteins following infection of HeLa cells with NDV . In agreement with that, here we have shown that after infection with NDV, there was very little alteration on the mRNA levels of Bax and Bcl-2 from those levels (Figure 1). However, this event could also be strain and/or cell line-dependent; as shown previously , the Bax to Bcl-2 ratio in Vero cells following NDV infection changes. It has been observed that after infection of these cells with NDV, the Bax expression increased whereas Bcl-2 expression decreased. Therefore, it could be concluded that NDV-induced apoptosis in these two cell lines could follow different mechanisms.
Previously, we have shown that AF2240 causes cell death in HeLa cells within 24 h . This event is associated with Bax conformational change and translocation from the cytoplasm to mitochondria. Subsequently cytochrome c is released from mitochondria and contributes to cell death via the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. In the current study, we further investigated the reason behind pro-apoptotic ability of NDV by demonstrating that AF2240-M, AF2240-F and AF2240-L proteins contain BH domain-like regions (Figure 2). By cloning the AF2240-F and AF2240-M genes (that both contain BH1- and BH3-like domains) into expression vectors and transfecting them into HeLa cells, it was shown that the expressed proteins displayed pro-apoptotic effect (Figure 5). Later, we showed that mutant AF2240-M-ΔBH3 had nearly five-fold decrease in cell death rate compared to the wild-type, while AF2240-M-N-terminal had the same rate of cell death as to that of the full-length AF2240-M (Figure 5A).
Therefore, it was very likely that the BH domain-like regions are responsible for the apoptotic effect of NDV viral proteins and that they might interact with Bcl-2 family members. To further investigate, several plasmid constructs were co-transfected with another into HeLa cells. Based on co-IP, it was found that the FLAG-tagged AF2240-M indeed directly bound to the GFP-Bax protein (Figure 8). All other tested proteins of the Bcl-2 family failed to interact with either AF2240-M or AF2240-F. Furthermore, FLAG-tagged AF2240-M-ΔBH3 failed to interact with GFP-Bax proving that the binding occured via the BH3 domain of AF2240-M (Figure 10). It was concluded that the AF2240-M can also directly bind to human Bax following NDV infection as long as the plasmid constructs expressed proteins that resembled their natural forms.
Together with our previous results, it could be concluded that binding of the AF2240-M to the endogenous Bax results in activation of Bax and consequently contributes to its translocation to the outer membrane of mitochondria (Figure 7), facilitating the release of mitochondrial factors such as cytochrome c. It should be reminded that each NDV virus particle contains a large number of M protein molecules in the inner side of its membrane. After NDV entry, all viral proteins are released inside the host cell, and therefore each M protein molecule could potentially act as a killer agent to promote apoptosis. On the other hand, it has been reported that inactive NDV virus (either chemically fixed or UV-irradiated) can also exhibit pro-apoptotic ability [37, 38]. Moreover, it has been shown that the substitutions of both HN and F proteins of mesogenic strains with velogenic strains did not alter nor increase the virulence of the virus , suggesting other factors are involved. These findings further supported our hypothesis that the M protein is a major candidate for the behavior of NDV.
As shown in Figure 5A, transfection of cells with pFLAG-F led to cell death, albeit somewhat lower compared to pFLAG-M. Surprisingly, co-transfection of pFLAG-F and the same amount of pGFP-Bcl-XL led to a dramatic five-fold drop of death rate (Figure 9A). This suggests a possible intracellular inhibition of AF2240-F by Bcl-XL. However, no interaction between FLAG-tagged AF2240-F and GFP-Bcl-XL was observed. Possibly, GFP-Bcl-XL inhibits other mechanisms downstream of the action of AF2240-F. In contrast, the reduction of apoptosis in pGFP-Bcl-XL and pFLAG-M co-transfected cells was not as significant as pGFP-Bcl-XL and pFLAG-F co-transfected cells (Figure 9B). Perhaps, AF2240-F and AF2240-M follow different pathways of apoptosis and/or GFP-Bcl-XL is not able to sufficiently prevent AF2240-M.
BH3-like region of AF2240-M is located within the N-terminal segment of the protein (a.a. 27-32). On the other hand and as stated before, the NDV M protein is believed to play an important role in the assembly of the virus by interacting with the nucleocapsid, the lipid bilayer and also the regions of the surface glycoproteins that are exposed on the inner surface of the membrane, but the domains on the M protein that are involved in binding with the three macromolecules have yet to be delineated . Surprisingly, by using TMHMM software, we revealed that BH3-like region in AF2240-M protein is located in the only area that exhibits a minor transmembrane binding ability. Therefore, since many Bcl-2 family members interact with each other via their BH3 domain, further investigation is needed to show whether NDV M protein interacts with other NDV viral proteins via this domain.
It should be highlighted that although AF2240-L showed a higher sequence similarity to the BH3 domain compared to the rest of the viral proteins (Figure 2C), there is limitation for cloning and transfection studies because of the length of its gene (6615 bp).
Viral proteins that resemble Bcl-2 family members by having one or more BH-like domains.
Does Not Interact With
Bax, Bak, Bim
Bax, Bak, Bim
BH3 Binding Groove
Gamma-Herpes Virus 68
African Swine Virus
Bid, Bax, Bak, Noxa
Kaposi Sarcoma-Associated Virus
Human Herpesvirus-8. 9 Homologs
Conserved BH1, BH2. No BH3
Bik, Puma, Noxa, Bim
Inactive form of Bax
The BH3 domain is mainly considered as a pro-apoptotic domain of the Bcl-2 family of proteins . Although the BH1 domain is generally a pro-survival domain, it is present in some of the pro-apoptotic members such as Bak and Bax. In this study, we show that although AF2240-M and AF2240-F proteins both contain BH1-like regions, they both display a pro-apoptotic function (Figure 5). However, BH1-like domain of AF2240-M was not found to be responsible for its interaction with Bax.
Not much is known about the mechanisms underlying the velogenicity of different strains of NDV, but there is now evidence that the cleavability of F0 is a major determinant for virulence of NDV virus [43, 44]. Therefore, some might argue that a direct transfection of a plasmid containing full-length F gene would not fully demonstrate its pro-apoptotic ability as the expressed product has not undergone post-translational modification, and therefore it is not in its natural wild-type form. However, we noticed that the BH1- and BH3-homologous regions of AF2240-F are not localised within any of the previously characterised regions (i.e. HR regions, cleavage site, glycosylation regions, or transmembrane segment). Thus, AF2240-F could still exert its apoptotic effect whether it is in its full-length or cleaved form. On the other hand, unlike F and HN glycoproteins of NDV, the M protein does not undergo cleavage and glycosylation. There has been no report showing that M core protein has a major post-translational cleavage similar to that of NDV surface proteins. Therefore, transfection of a full-length M gene and elicitation of its pro-apoptotic effect would unlikely to be regulated by post-translational modification.
AF2240 is a velogenic strain that causes severe intestinal lesions and neurological disorders, resulting in high mortality. Previously it was shown that AF2240-HN protein of this strain has a different length compared to those of other strains . Compared to other NDV strains, the BH3 domain-like sequence in AF2240-M has threonine 38 residue in place of alanine (Figure 3). In addition, glycine 2130 is present in the BH3 domain-like sequence of AF2240-L protein in place of serine. On the other hand, most L proteins share residues that are not present in AF2240-L. These differences could potentially account for the velogenic characteristic of AF2240 compared to milder strains and this is in need of further investigation.
In conclusion, we have demonstrated that the NDV M protein is able to interact with human Bax protein by its BH3 domain. Such interactions could potentially account for the pro-apoptotic ability of NDV and ultimately lead us to better understanding of the viral mechanisms.
American type culture collection
Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium
Fetal bovine serum
- BH domain:
Bcl-2 homology domain
Molouki A was supported by a GRF scholarship, UPM. This research was supported by the Malaysian Genome Institute Grant MGI-NBD0017-2007.
- Aldous EW, Alexander DJ: Newcastle disease in pheasants (Phasianus colchicus): a review. Vet J 2008, 175: 181-185. 10.1016/j.tvjl.2006.12.012View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lai MC, Ibrahim AL: Velogenic viscerotropic Newcastle disease virus. In Newcastle disease in poultry: a new food pellet vaccine. Volume monograph 5. Edited by: Copland JW. Canberra: ACIAR; 1987:33-34.Google Scholar
- Mayo MA: A summary of taxonomic changes recently approved by ICTV. Arch Virol 2002, 147: 1655-1663. 10.1007/s007050200039View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Krishnamurthy S, Samal SK: Nucleotide sequences of the trailer, nucleocapsid protein gene and intergenic regions of Newcastle disease virus strain Beaudette C and completion of the entire genome sequence. J Gen Virol 1998, 79: 2419-2424.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Phillips RJ, Samson ACR, Emmerson PT: Nucleotide sequence of the 59 -terminus of Newcastle disease virus and assembly of the complete genomic sequence: agreement with the "rule of six". Arch Virol 1998, 143: 1993-2002. 10.1007/s007050050435View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- de Leeuw OS, Peeters BP: Complete nucleotide sequence of Newcastle disease virus: evidence for the existence of a new genus within the subfamily Paramyxovirinae. J Gen Virol 1999, 80: 131-136.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yusoff K, Tan WS: Newcastle disease virus: macromolecules and opportunities. Avian Pathol 2001, 30: 439-455. 10.1080/03079450120078626View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gotoh B, Ohnishi Y, Inocencio NM, Esaki E, Nakayama K, Barr PJ, Thomas G, Nagai Y: Mammalian subtilisin-related proteinases in cleavage activation of the paramyxovirus fusion glycoprotein: superiority of furin/PACE to PC2 or PC1/PC3. J Virol 1992, 66: 6391-6397.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ogasawara T, Gotoh B, Suzuki H, Asaka J, Shimokata K, Rott R, Nagai Y: Expression of factor × and its significance for the determination of paramyxovirus ropism in the chick embryo. EMBO 1992, 11: 467-472.Google Scholar
- Young JK, Li D, Abramowitz MC, Morrison TG: Interaction of peptides with sequences from the Newcastle disease virus fusion protein heptad repeat regions. J Virol 1999, 73: 5945-5956.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chambers P, Millar NS, Emmerson PT: Nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the fusion glycoprotein of Newcastle disease virus. J Gen Virol 1986, 67: 2685-2694. 10.1099/0022-1317-67-12-2685View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Garcia-Sastre A, Cabezas JA, Villar E: Proteins of Newcastle disease virus envelope: interaction between the outer hemagglutinin-neuraminidase glycoprotein and the inner non-glycosylated matrix protein. Biochim Biophys Acta 1989, 999: 171-175. 10.1016/0167-4838(89)90214-8View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Reichard KW, Lorence RM, Cascino CJ, Peeples ME, Walter RJ, Fernando MB, Reyes HM, Greager JA: Newcastle disease virus selectively kills human tumor cells. Surg Res 1992, 52: 448-453. 10.1016/0022-4804(92)90310-VView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lam KM, Vasconcelos AC, Bickford AA: Apoptosis as a cause of death in chicken embryos inoculated with Newcastle disease virus. Microb Pathog 1995, 19: 169-174. 10.1006/mpat.1995.0055View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Molouki A, Hsu YT, Jahanshiri F, Rosli R, Yusoff K: Newcastle disease virus infection promotes Bax redistribution to mitochondria and cell death in HeLa cells. Intervirol 2010, 53: 87-94. 10.1159/000264198View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Washburn B, Weigand MA, Grosse-Wilde A, Janke M, Stahl H, Rieser E, Sprick MR, Schirrmacher V, Walczak H: TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand mediates tumoricidal activity of human monocytes stimulated by Newcastle disease virus. J Immunol 2003, 170: 1814-1821.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ekert PG, Vaux DL: Apoptosis and the immune system. Br Med Bull 1997, 53: 591-603.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wang X: The expanding role of mitochondria in apoptosis. Genes Dev 2001, 15: 2922-2933.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Oltvai ZN, Milliman CL, Korsmeyer SJ: Bcl-2 heterodimerizes in vivo with a conserved homolog, Bax, that accelerates programmed cell death. Cell 1993, 74: 609-619. 10.1016/0092-8674(93)90509-OView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Roulston A, Marcellus RC, Branton PE: Viruses and apoptosis. Annu Rev Microbiol 1999, 53: 577-628. 10.1146/annurev.micro.53.1.577View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Henderson S, Huen D, Rowe M, Dawson C, Johnson G, Rickinson A: Epstein-Barr virus-coded BHRF1 protein, a viral homologue of Bcl-2, protects human B cells from programmed cell death. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1993, 90: 8479-8483. 10.1073/pnas.90.18.8479PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Takayama S, Cazals-Hatem DL, Kitada S, Tanaka S, Miyashita T, Hovey LR, Huen D, Rickinson A, Veerapandian P, Krajewski S, authors o: Evolutionary conservation of function among mammalian, avian, and viral homologs of the Bcl-2 oncoprotein. DNA Cell Biol 1994, 13: 679-692. 10.1089/dna.1994.13.679View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Brun A, Rivas C, Esteban M, Escribano JM, Alonso C: African swine fever virus gene A179L, a viral homologue of bcl-2, protects cells from programmed cell death. Virology 1996, 225: 227-230. 10.1006/viro.1996.0592View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cheng EH, Nicholas J, Bellows DS, Hayward GS, Guo HG, Reitz MS, Hardwick JM: A Bcl-2 homolog encoded by Kaposi sarcoma-associated virus, human herpesvirus 8, inhibits apoptosis but does not heterodimerize with Bax or Bak. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1997, 94: 690-694. 10.1073/pnas.94.2.690PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sarid R, Sato T, Bohenzky RA, Russo JJ, Chang Y: Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus encodes a functional bcl-2 homologue. Nat Med 1997, 3: 293-298. 10.1038/nm0397-293View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nava VE, Cheng EH, Veliuona M, Zou S, Clem RJ, Mayer ML, Hardwick JM: Herpesvirus saimiri encodes a functional homolog of the human bcl-2 oncogene. J Virol 1997, 71: 4118-4122.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yasuda M, Theodorakis P, Subramanian T, Chinnadurai G: Adenovirus E1B-19K/BCL-2 interacting protein BNIP3 contains a BH3 domain and a mitochondrial targeting sequence. J Biol Chem 1998, 273: 12415-12421. 10.1074/jbc.273.20.12415View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Han J, Modha D, White E: Interaction of E1B 19K with Bax is required to block Bax-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis. Oncogene 1998, 17: 2993-3005. 10.1038/sj.onc.1202215View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wasilenko ST, Stewart TL, Meyers AF, Barry M: Vaccinia virus encodes a previously uncharacterized mitochondrial-associated inhibitor of apoptosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2003, 100: 14345-14350. 10.1073/pnas.2235583100PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tan WS, Lau CH, Ng BK, Ibrahim AL, Yusoff K: Nucleotide sequence of the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) gene of a Malaysian heat resistant viscerotropic-velogenic Newcastle disease virus. DNA Seq 1995, 6: 47-50.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ramanujam P, Tan WS, Nathan S, Yusoff K: Novel peptides that inhibit the propagation of Newcastle disease virus. Arch Virol 2002, 147: 981-993. 10.1007/s00705-001-0778-yView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhou H, Hou Q, Chai Y, Hsu YT: Distinct domains of Bcl-XL are involved in Bax and Bad antagonism and in apoptosis inhibition. Exp Cell Res 2005, 309: 316-328. 10.1016/j.yexcr.2005.06.014View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hsu YT, Wolter KG, Youle RJ: Cytosol-to-membrane redistribution of Bax and Bcl-X(L) during apoptosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1997, 94: 3668-3672. 10.1073/pnas.94.8.3668PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hsu YT, Youle RJ: Bax in murine thymus is a soluble monomeric protein that displays differential detergent-induced conformations. J Biol Chem 1998, 273: 10777-10783. 10.1074/jbc.273.17.10777View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Suzuki M, Youle RJ, Tjandra N: Structure of Bax: coregulation of dimer formation and intracellular localization. Cell 2000, 103: 645-654. 10.1016/S0092-8674(00)00167-7View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ravindra PV, Tiwari AK, Ratta B, Chaturvedi U, Palia SK, Chauhan RS: Newcastle disease virus-induced cytopathic effect in infected cells is caused by apoptosis. Virus Res 2009, 141: 13-20. 10.1016/j.virusres.2008.12.008View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yang S, Liu W, Cui H, Sun S, Wang J: In vitro induction of apoptosis in tumor cells by inactivated NDV and IAV. Cancer Biother Radiopharm 2007, 22: 200-205. 10.1089/cbr.2007.337View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zeng J, Fournier P, Schirrmacher V: Induction of Interferon-[alpha] and Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand in Human Blood Mononuclear Cells by Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase but Not F Protein of Newcastle Disease Virus. Virology 2002, 297: 19-30. 10.1006/viro.2002.1413View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Estevez C, King D, Seal B, Yu Q: Evaluation of Newcastle disease virus chimeras expressing the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein of velogenic strains in the context of a mesogenic recombinant virus backbone. Virus Res 2007, 129: 182-190. 10.1016/j.virusres.2007.07.008View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Flanagan AM, Letai A: BH3 domains define selective inhibitory interactions with BHRF-1 and KSHV BCL-2. Cell Death Differ 2008, 15: 580-588. 10.1038/sj.cdd.4402292PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Galindo I, Hernaez B, Diaz-Gil G, Escribano JM, Alonso C: A179L, a viral Bcl-2 homologue, targets the core Bcl-2 apoptotic machinery and its upstream BH3 activators with selective binding restrictions for Bid and Noxa. Virology 2008, 375: 561-572. 10.1016/j.virol.2008.01.050PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Willis SN, Adams JM: Life in the balance: how BH3-only proteins induce apoptosis. Curr Opin Cell Biol 2005, 17: 617-625. 10.1016/j.ceb.2005.10.001PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Peeters BPH, de Leeuw OS, Koch G, Gielkens AL: Rescue of Newcastle disease virus from cloned cDNA: evidence that cleavability of the fusion protein is a major determinant for virulence. J Virol 1999, 73: 5001-5009.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- de Leeuw OS, Koch G, Hartog L, Ravenshorst N, Peeters BPH: Virulence of Newcastle disease virus is determined by the cleavage site of the fusion protein and by both the stem region and globular head of the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein. J Gen Virol 2005, 86: 1759-1769. 10.1099/vir.0.80822-0View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Taylor JM, Quilty D, Banadyga L, Barry M: The vaccinia virus protein F1L interacts with Bim and inhibits activation of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax. J Biol Chem 2006, 281: 39728-39739. 10.1074/jbc.M607465200View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mohd-Ismail NK, Deng L, Sukumaran SK, Yu VC, Hotta H, Tan YJ: The hepatitis C virus core protein contains a BH3 domain that regulates apoptosis through specific interaction with human Mcl-1. J Virol 2009, 83: 9993-10006. 10.1128/JVI.00509-09PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Desbien AL, Kappler JW, Marrack P: The Epstein-Barr virus Bcl-2 homolog, BHRF1, blocks apoptosis by binding to a limited amount of Bim. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2009, 106: 5663-5668. 10.1073/pnas.0901036106PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Xiaofei E, Hwang S, Oh S, Lee JS, Jeong JH, Gwack Y, Kowalik TF, Sun R, Jung JU, Liang C: Viral Bcl-2-mediated evasion of autophagy aids chronic infection of gammaherpesvirus 68. PLoS Pathog 2009, 5: e1000609. 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000609View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Douglas AE, Corbett KD, Berger JM, McFadden G, Handel TM: Structure of M11L: A myxoma virus structural homolog of the apoptosis inhibitor, Bcl-2. Protein Sci 2007, 16: 695-703. 10.1110/ps.062720107PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nicholas J, Ruvolo V, Zong J, Ciufo D, Guo HG, Reitz MS, Hayward GS: A single 13-kilobase divergent locus in the Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (human herpesvirus 8) genome contains nine open reading frames that are homologous to or related to cellular proteins. J Virol 1997, 71: 1963-1974.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lu YW, Ren YD, Bai J, Chen WN: The spliced variant of hepatitis B virus protein, HBSP, interacts with Bcl-2/Bcl-xl in vitro and induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells. IUBMB Life 2008, 60: 700-702. 10.1002/iub.108View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Derfuss T, Fickenscher H, Kraft MS, Henning G, Lengenfelder D, Fleckenstein B, Meinl E: Antiapoptotic activity of the herpesvirus saimiri-encoded Bcl-2 homolog: stabilization of mitochondria and inhibition of caspase-3-like activity. J Virol 1998, 72: 5897-5904.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Westphal D, Ledgerwood EC, Tyndall JD, Hibma MH, Ueda N, Fleming SB, Mercer AA: The orf virus inhibitor of apoptosis functions in a Bcl-2-like manner, binding and neutralizing a set of BH3-only proteins and active Bax. Apoptosis 2009, 14: 1317-1330. 10.1007/s10495-009-0403-1View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.