A Shigella boydii bacteriophage which resembles Salmonella phage ViI
© Anany et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2011
Received: 3 March 2011
Accepted: 19 May 2011
Published: 19 May 2011
Lytic bacteriophages have been applied successfully to control the growth of various foodborne pathogens. Sequencing of their genomes is considered as an important preliminary step to ensure their safety prior to food applications.
The lytic bacteriophage, ΦSboM-AG3, targets the important foodborne pathogen, Shigella. It is morphologically similar to phage ViI of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and a series of phages of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Rhizobium meliloti. The complete genome of ΦSboM-AG3 was determined to be 158 kb and was terminally redundant and circularly permuted. Two hundred and sixteen open reading frames (ORFs) were identified and annotated, most of which displayed homology to proteins of Salmonella phage ViI. The genome also included four genes specifying tRNAs.
This is the first time that a Vi-specific phage for Shigella has been described. There is no evidence for the presence of virulence and lysogeny-associated genes. In conclusion, the genome analysis of ΦSboM-AG3 indicates that this phage can be safely used for biocontrol purposes.
Shigella species sonnei, flexneri, and boydii are among the most important foodborne pathogens [1, 2]. Ingestion of food contaminated with these bacteria causes shigellosis within 12 - 48 hours. Fever, aches, fatigue and loss of appetite are the initial symptoms, which may be associated with watery diarrhea that, in turn, may develop into bloody stools or dysentery. A fatal hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS), due to the production of Shiga toxin, may also develop in certain severe cases . Shigella-related outbreaks occur through direct or indirect human fecal contamination and have been reported in both developed and developing countries wherever poor hygiene standards occur . Food products such as salads, soft cheese, vegetables and meat products are usually reported as being associated with these outbreaks .
Lytic phages have been applied successfully to control the growth of various foodborne pathogens including Shigella. They are able to attack sensitive bacteria and utilize their host's resources to reproduce. Cell lysis leads to the release of progeny phage particles . As phages are becoming recognized as potential tools to control pathogens in food, phage genomics will play an increasingly important role in ensuring that potentially harmful phage products are selected against . For instance, genomic data could ensure the detection of virulence genes and any genes that might lead to lysogenization of a pathogen . As DNA sequencing techniques advance, the number of sequenced phage genomes has increased exponentially . To date, over 530 complete genome sequences of Caudovirales phages have been deposited in the NCBI database, which has allowed detailed comparative analyses with the aim to develop more coherent classification schemes and provide insights into evolutionary processes [10–15].
Several important phages target the Vi or virulence-associated polysaccharide capsular antigen of Salmonella Typhi as a receptor . They are classified in seven serotypes (ViI to ViVII). Phage ViII is widely used for phage typing of this bacterium. All Vi phages have isometric heads and either contractile, or long or short noncontractile tails. They belong to the Myoviridae (ViI), Siphoviridae (ViII), and Podoviridae (ViIII to VII), respectively . Phage ViI has a very characteristic morphology that was also found in certain Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Rhizobium meliloti viruses [17–20]. Phages of this group possess a neck, a collar, and a contractile tail. They have a thin baseplate, which is connected to a highly ramified structure consisting of either short tail fibers. Phage ViII possesses a lambda-like morphology, but has a base plate with three spikes, while phages ViIII to ViVII have a very short tail terminating in a base plate with at least two spikes . Although Vi phages were first described over 60 years ago, little is known about their molecular structure .
In previous work, we isolated three strongly lytic phages that could be considered as good candidates for Shigella control (unpublished data). One of them, ΦSboM-AG3, was morphologically similar to phage ViI. We wanted to study some of its growth properties, determine and annotate its genomic sequence, and assess its structural functions in relation to other existing phages in the GenBank. This would aid in a better understanding of the molecular structure of this phage and features that might be useful in its taxonomical classification and application for Shigella control.
Phage morphology, host range and one-step growth
Bacterial strains used in this study; and, host range of ΦSboM-AG3 on 24 Shigella strains.
S. boydii (C865)
S. boydii (79-1109)
S. sonnei (C866)
S. boydii (74-3594)
S. flexneri (C869)
S. boydii (84-1119)
S. sonnei (C870)
S. boydii (83-578)
S. flexneri (61-1186)
S. boydii (99-4528)
S. flexneri (71-2747)
S. dysenteriae (04-3380)
S. flexneri (04-3435)
S. dysenteriae (91-3501)
S. flexneri (95-3239)
S. dysenteriae (53-4738)
S. flexneri (05-3605)
S. dysenteriae (52-2050)
S. flexneri (86-3239)
S. dysenteriae (69-2387)
S. boydii (74-1789)
S. dysenteriae (94-3065)
S. boydii (74-4334)
S. dysenteriae (79-8006)
General features of the ΦSboM-AG3 genome
The genome sequence was received as a single contig representing the consensus reads from 19 × coverage. The size of the genome is 158,006 bp with a G+C content of 50.4%; the latter being almost identical to that of its host bacterium, S. boydii, (51 mol%). Since pulsed-field gel electrophoresis indicated that the phage genome is approximately 165 kb, the genome of this phage is terminally redundant, with 3.5 kb redundant regions. For comparative purposes with Salmonella phage ViI, the ΦSboM-AG3 genome was opened just upstream of the rIIA homolog prior to annotation.
Identification and analysis of open reading frames (ORFs)
The sequence contained no demonstrable frameshifts as indicated by BLASTX analysis. The genome was subjected to automated analysis using AutoFACT complemented analysis for tRNAs; and, by manual annotation using Kodon coupled with BLASTP, PFAM, TMHMM and Phobius analyses of each of its proteins.
Recent analysis reveals that the majority (179 or 82.8%) of the proteins encoded by this phage show sequence similarity to Salmonella phage ViI . The other virus with which ΦSboM-AG3 shares sequence similarity is Escherichia coli O157:H7 phage PhaxI, which is represented in GenBank by six fragments (HQ259285 - HQ259290).
Codon usage and tRNAs
The ΦSboM-AG3 genome was found to contain four tRNA genes for three amino acids, namely, serine (anticodons: TGA & GCT), asparagine (GTT), and tyrosine (GTA). While the manuscript describing the genome of Salmonella phage ViI indicates the presence of five tRNAs, these data are not included in their GenBank submission (FQ312032). These two viruses share tRNA-Asn, tRNA-Tyr and tRNA-Ser (GCT), but differ in that ViI has two additions tRNAs for Met (CAT) and Gln (TTG), and ΦSboM-AG3 possesses the second seryl-tRNA. In both viruses, the tRNA genes are to be found in the same relative positions on the genomes. The GC content of the ΦSboM-AG3 tRNAs ranged from 53.9 to 56.2%. Adding these tRNAs to the ORFs resulted in a total coding capacity for the ΦSboM-AG3 genome of 146,481 bp or 92.7%. A comparison of the codon usage pattern of the phage with its host (Shigella boydii) showed that none of these tRNAs is likely to enhance translation. We identified six codons which are significantly overrepresented (frequency ≥30% and ≥1.5 fold increase) in phage genes (phenylalanine [UUC], isoleucine [AUG], proline [CCU], lysine [AAG], aspartic acid [GAC] and arginine [CGU]), yet no phage-specified tRNAs exist.
In the following sections we shall briefly discuss the roles of some phage-encoded proteins.
Nucleotide metabolism, DNA replication and recombination
The ΦSboM-AG3 genome contains numerous genes involved in nucleotide metabolism, DNA replication and recombination. In the former category are a dNTP diphosphatase (orf063), a putative nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase (orf149), NrdA (orf093), NrdB (orf090) and glutaredoxin (orf088) homologs, and thymidylate synthase orf066). At least nine genes were identified with play significant roles in DNA replication in coliphage T4 including, a DNA polymerase (orf236), a primase (orf102), three proteins defined as possessing helicase activity (gporf041/059/125), and a DNA ligase (orf045). Recombination proteins include two topoisomerases (orf014/017), a T4 gp46/47 recombinase pairs (orf119/121), and UvsWXY homologs (orf168/061/170).
No holin or lysin-encoding genes were detected in the genome. Holins are usually small proteins characterized by the presence of two or three transmembrane domains. These criteria could apply to products of genes 9.1, 78, 117, 244 or 246 which possess 65, 103, 54, 65, and 61 amino acids, respectively. Since holin genes are frequently collocated on phage genomes a detailed PSI-BLAST examination of genes 10, 11, 79, 80, 243, and 247 failed to reveal lysin homologs or domains.
Transcriptional and regulatory sequences
None of the transcriptional regulatory sites were identified in the genome sequence of Salmonella phage ViI. Based on sequence homology to the consensus housekeeping E. coli promoter recognized by RNA polymerase carrying Sigma 70 (TTGACA (N15-18) TATAAT), eight promoters were tentatively identified (Additional file 2, Table S2) which probably function in early transcription.
Initiation of transcription of late genes in T4-related phages involves a complex between core RNA polymerase, a phage encoded sigma factor (gp55), an accessory protein (gp33) and the sliding clamp protein gp45 which "facilitates RNA polymerase recruitment to late promoters" .
ΦSboM-AG3 encodes homologs of all three proteins gp55 (Orf122), gp33 (Orf076) and gp45 (Orf165). Based upon the sequence of late promoters (TATAAATA) and allowing one mismatch, 17 putative late promoters were identified in the genome of ΦSboM-AG3. In three cases the putative promoters could result in products which are postulated to be late: Porf072 (upstream of T4-like gp2 DNA end protector protein), Porf084 (gp5 baseplate hub subunit), and Porf217 (gp6 baseplate wedge subunit). A WebLogo  was constructed from which the consensus sequence TNT(N3)A(N10)C(N2)ATNAATA was used, with only one mismatch to search the genome for other potential late promoters. Three were identified.
DNA packaging and morphogenesis
The morphogenesis of this phage was investigated using genomic (homology searches) and proteomic (SDS-PAGE/mass spectroscopy) approaches. Large and small terminase subunit homologs were determined to be the products of genes 196 and 198. Genes for major head, prohead core, portal vertex proteins were identified as genes 185, 186 and 191, respectively. In addition, genes for prohead protease and head completion protein were identified as genes 188 and 036, respectively. Genes 037 and 084 were for baseplate assembly while, genes 210 and 212 showed sequence similarity to tail spike proteins. The tail tube and base plate initiator gene was identified to be gene 073. Genes 192, and 195 are predicted to be genes for tail sheath and tube. Interestingly, the terminase subunits are located between the genes involved in neck, base plate and tailspike synthesis and those involved in head and tail synthesis. The genes associated with baseplate synthesis are located in three widely separated regions of the genome.
Open reading frames identified by mass spectrometric analysis of CsCl-purified ΦSboM-AG3 phage particles.
Molecular weight (kDa)
Number of peptides
% Sequence coverage
Tail sheath (T4 gp18 homolog)
Major capsid (T4 gp23 homolog)
Putative tail protein
Tail tube (T4 gp19 homolog)
ViI-like phages were reported to be found among isolated phages against Salmonella Typhi, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Rhizobium meliloti[17, 18]. To our knowledge, ΦSboM-AG3 is the first ViI-like phage of Shigella species. Although Vi phages were first described almost 80 years ago [17, 22], their genome structure has not been investigated until recently. The complete sequences of each member of the Vi-specific Salmonella viruses have now been completed. A member of the ViII species, Salmonella phage E1 , is a siphovirus that has a genome of 45.4 kb. The remainder are all members of the Autographivirinae of the Podoviridae family  with Salmonella phage (Vi VI, GenBank accession number FR667955, 38.4 kb), ViIII (39.0 kb), Vi V (38.6 kb), and Vi VII (39.2 kb) belonging to the "T7-like viruses", and ViIV, with a 44.6 kb genome, associated with the "SP6-like viruses" .
Shigella phage ΦSboM-AG3 possesses three contiguous genes (orfs 207, 210 and 212) which are homologous to tailspike-encoding genes from Salmonella phage ViI. This raises the interesting question about what surface receptor is recognized by the Shigella phage. The Vi antigen is an acetylated α(1→4) polymer of galactosaminouronic acid units [31, 32]. The genes for the biosynthesis of this polymer do not exist in the fully sequenced S. boydii strain (NC_010658) as shown by BLAST analyses, nor does the antigen exist on our bacterium (L. Cole, personal communication). Of note was the observation that the serotyping one of the Shigella host strains was rough, that is, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) defective. This result suggests that the receptor for ΦSboM-AG3 either lies in the core region of the LPS or is perhaps an outer membrane protein. Phage ViI locus tag Vi01_171c contains a "domain of unknown function" (DUF303) between residues 343-445. This protein motif occurs in proteins described as sialic acid-specific 9-O-acetylesterases and acetylxylan esterases, which suggests that the tail fibers of Vi-specific Salmonella phages function to remove acetyl groups from the Vi antigen . The ΦSboM-AG3 homolog, gp210, shows no sequence similarity in this region of the protein, and lacks a DUF303 motif suggesting that its receptor is only peripherally related to the Salmonella Vi antigen. The recent paper of Petrov and colleagues , re-examining the diversity of T4-like bacteriophages, recognized that ΦSboM-AG3 is a member of the "T4 superfamily". Salmonella phage ViI was recognized as being the sole member of a genus by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV; Ackermann, personal communication). Since Shigella phage ΦSboM-AG3 and Salmonella phage ViI are closely related we propose the creation of a new genus, the "ViI-like viruses".
It is notable that the genome of this phage does not contain any genes that are related to bacterial toxins and/or lysogeny. Similar results were obtained when the sequencing of Listeria phage P100 DNA revealed that it does not contain any genes or proteins which are known or suspected to be involved in toxicity, pathogenicity or antibiotic resistance . This would make this phage a good candidate for the safe application for controlling foodborne pathogen Shigella sp. .
Materials and methods
Bacteria and bacteriophage
Tryptic Soy Broth (TSB), Tryptic Soy Agar (TSA), and Tryptic Soft Agar (TSB+ 0.4% agar) (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI) were used to grow the host bacteria and to propagate the phage. The bacterial strain Shigella boydii C865-2 (Canadian Research Institute of Food Safety (CRIFS), University of Guelph, ON, Canada) was used in this study for phage propagation. Other bacterial strains, listed in Table 1, were from the CRIFS collection (strains labeled with the prefix "C") or Nancy Strockbine (Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA).
Enrichment, isolation and propagation of phages
Sewage samples collected from local waste-water treatment plants (Guelph, ON, Canada) were enriched in an equal volume of TSB and 100 μL of an overnight culture of a mixture of selected strains of Shigella. The mixture was incubated for 16-20 h at 30°C with gentle shaking. After incubation, the suspensions were centrifuged at 4000 × g for 15 min at 4°C (Beckman Avanti J-20 XPI, Beckman Coulter Inc., Mississauga, ON, Canada). The supernatant was carefully transferred to another tube and filtered through a sterile disposable filter of 0.45 μm pore size (Fisher Scientific, Mississauga, ON, Canada) and stored at 4°C.
Phages were detected in the enrichments by spot test . Briefly, 100 μL of a bacterial overnight culture was added to 4 mL of molten TSB containing 0.4% agarose at 50-55°C, mixed and poured onto TSA (1.5% agar) plate and allowed to solidify for 15 min. Samples (10 μL) of the filtered were spotting on the top soft agar and allowing it to dry for 20 min before incubation for 16-20 h at 25°C.
After incubation, the plates were examined for the presence of complete or partial lysis zones; these zones were removed from the TSA plates by cutting the soft layer from the plate using a sterile wire loop and placing them separately in 1 mL of λ-Ca2+ phage buffer (λ buffer: 2.5 g/L MgS04. 7H2O; 0.05 g/L gelatin; 6 mL/L 1 M Tris buffer; pH 7.2). Following autoclaving at 121°C for 15 min, filter-sterilized CaCl2.2H2O was added to λ buffer to a final concentration of 5 mM. The tubes were held at room temperature overnight to let the phages diffuse out of the soft agar. The mixture then was filtered through a 0.45 μm membrane filter (Fisher Scientific, Mississauga, ON, Canada) to purify the phages. The isolated phage was purified as previously described  by picking up single plaque and using the soft agar overlay method. This procedure was repeated 3 successive times to obtain purified phages.
Host range determination using a Bioscreen C Plate Reader
The host range of AG3 on 29 Shigella strains was determined by measuring the optical density (OD) of the tested bacteria in the presence of phage using the Bioscreen C Microbiology Plate Reader (Labsystems, Helsinki, Finland). The following experimental parameters were used for all experiments: single, wide band (wb) wavelength; 25°C incubation temperature; 5 min preheating time; kinetic measurement; measurement time 24 hours; reading every 20 min and medium intensity shaking for 10 s before measurements. Fifty microliters of the phage lysate were transferred to each of the 100 wells of the sterilized honeycomb plates of the Bioscreen C reader (Growth Curves USA, New Jersey, USA) each of the wells was inoculated with 125 μL of a diluted overnight culture of the tested bacterium (around 103 CFU/mL). The multiplicity of infection (MOI) was around 100. The control wells contained either phage only, phage buffer only or an equal volume of phage buffer with bacteria. All samples were tested in triplicate. OD data were analyzed using the Bioscreen C data processing software version 5.26 (Labsystems, Helsinki, Finland) to determine the detection time (time required for each test well to increase by 0.3 OD units). Detection times (hr:min) were converted to decimal values, averaged and the mean control detection time was subtracted from all test data for each isolate tested and expressed as detection time difference (DT diff.). Instead of having positive and negative results and based on this time difference, we proposed that the lytic activity of the phages can be classified as; (N): in which phage did not cause any delay in the tested bacterial growth and the growth curve was similar to that of the control; (D): phage cause a delay of tested bacterial growth by less than five hours; DT <5 hrs, (D+): phage cause a delay of the tested bacterial growth by 5 or more hours; DT ≥5 hrs, and (C): in which the phage caused a complete inhibition of bacterial growth after 24 hours.
One-step growth curve
Burst size and latent period for the selected phages were determined by a one-step growth experiment with some modifications from that described .
Transmission electron microscopy
For electron microscopy, phages were sedimented for 60 min at 25,000 g in a Beckman J2-21 (Palo Alto, Ca) centrifuge using a JA-18.1 fixed angle rotor. This was followed by two washings in 0.1 M neutral ammonium acetate under the same conditions. Purified phages were deposited on carbon-coated Formvar films on copper grids, stained with 2% potassium phosphotungstate (pH 7.0), and examined in a Philips EM 300 electron microscope operated at 60 kV. Magnification was monitored with T4 phage tails.
DNA isolation and sequencing
A crude phage lysate was freed from bacterial debris by centrifugation at 14,000 × g for 20 min at 4°C. Contaminating nucleic acids in the supernatant were digested with pancreatic DNase 1, and RNase A, each to a final concentration of 10 μg/mL (Sigma-Aldrich Canada Ltd., Oakville, ON) and phage particles were precipitated in the presence 10% w/v (final concentration) PEG-8000 and 1 M NaCl at 4°C overnight. The precipitated phage particles were recovered by centrifugation, resuspended in TM buffer (10 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.8, 1 mM MgSO4) and purified by separation on a self-generating cesium chloride (CsCl) gradient (1.5 g/ml CsCl, run at 21,000 × g at 4°C for 24 h) in a fixed angle, Beckman SW 90Ti rotor. Following purification by a second passage through a CsCl gradient for another 24 hours, the phage was dialyzed against two changes of two liters each of 1 × 10 mM TE buffer (pH 8.0), using Pierce dialysis cassettes with 3500 molecular weight cut-off (Thermo Scientific, Fisher Scientific, Mississauga, ON), and stored at 4°C. The DNA was extracted from a portion of the purified viral particles using the SDS/proteinase K method modified from  followed by extraction with phenol:chloroform:isoamyl alcohol (25:24:1, V/V), ethanol precipitation and resolution in 10 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.5). The DNA was characterized spectrophotometrically.
The DNA was subjected to pyrosequencing (454 technology) at the McGill University and Genome Québec Innovation Centre (Montreal, QC, Canada) to a coverage of 19×.
Prior to annotation, the genome was opened immediately upstream of the rIIA gene so that it could be compared with the sequence of the related ViI phage. The genome was initially subjected to automated annotation using AutoFACT , following which all open reading frames (ORFs) were confirmed using Kodon version 2.0 (Applied Maths Inc., Austin, TX, USA). Genes were identified from among the predicted coding sequences based on the presence of ATG, GTG, CTG or TTG start codons, followed by at least 30 additional codons, and an upstream sequence resembling the following ribosome-binding site, GGAGGT [38, 39]. Phage-encoded tRNA genes were identified with tRNAScan-SE and Aragorn, using the default parameters [40, 41].
Batch PFAM motif searches  were made at http://pfam.sanger.ac.uk/search#searchBatchBlock, while determination of the protein molecular weight and isoelectric point employed http://greengene.uml.edu/programs/FindMW.html.
The BLASTP algorithm was used to determine the similarity to described proteins in the National Center for Biotechnology Information [NCBI] database with searches conducted using Batch BLAST (http://greengene.uml.edu/programs/NCBI_Blast.html). DNAMAN was used to determine the codon usage information of both phage ΦSboM-AG3 and its host S. boydii. Promoters were identified based on sequence similarity to the consensus E. coli promoter, TTGACA (N15-18) TATAAT, immediately upstream of an annotated gene . Rho-independent terminators were discovered by examining the secondary structure of the DNA adjacent to polyT sequences using MFOLD . In addition we employed WebGeSTer  at http://pallab.serc.iisc.ernet.in/gester/rungester.html. Only terminators with a ΔG of less than -10 kcal/mol are reported. Genomic comparisons at the proteomic level were made using CoreGenes [46, 47]. Transmembrane domains were predicted using TMHMM v2.0 and Phobius [48, 49].
The intact phage particles were lysed using Laemmli's sample buffer (4% SDS, 20% glycerol, 10% 2-mercaptoethanol, 0.004% bromophenol blue, 0.125 M Tris HCl) and boiled for 5 min . The solubilized proteins were subsequently separated by a 12.5% SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and stained with SimplyBlue SafeStain (Invitrogen Canada, Burlington, ON). The gel data were analyzed using BioNumerics software (Applied Maths). The six most intense phage bands were excised and subjected to mass spectrometric analysis at the Mass Spectrometry Facility of Queen's University (Kingston, ON, Canada).
The annotated genome sequence for the Shigella phage ΦSboM-AG3 was deposited in the NCBI nucleotide database under the accession number FJ373894.
HA is currently a post-doctoral fellow in Canadian Research Institute for Food Safety, Food Science Department, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
gene product, used in the context of coliphage T4 proteins e.g. gp18, gp19, and gp23 are the protein products of genes 18, 19 and 23, respectively
matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization
- QqTOF MS:
quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry
tandem mass spectrometry.
AMK is supported by a Discovery Grant from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. The authors would like to thank Linda Cole of the Laboratory for Foodborne Zoonoses (Salmonella OIE Reference Laboratory) for serotyping the Shigella strains. The authors would like to acknowledge the technical assistance with TEM imaging of Mr. Robert Harris from University of Guelph. Dr. Lynn McIntyre from Harper Adams University College, UK is gratefully acknowledged for advising on the Bioscreen C plate reader set up. HA is financially supported by the Egyptian Ministry of Higher Education and SENTINEL Bioactive Paper Network.
- Sutherland J, Varnam A: Enterotoxin-producing Staphylococcus , Shigella, Yersinia, Vibrio, Aeromonas and Plesiomonas . In Foodborne Pathogens. Edited by: Anonymous. Washington, DC: CRC press; 2002:384-415.
- Kothary MH, Babu US: Infective dose of foodborne pathogens in volunteers: A review. Journal of Food Safety 2001,21(1):49-73. 10.1111/j.1745-4565.2001.tb00307.xView Article
- Acheson DWK: Shigella . In Guide to Foodborne Pathogens. Edited by: Labbe R, Garcia S. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons; 2001:193-200.
- Sivapalasingam S, Nelson JM, Joyce K, Hoekstra M, Angulo FJ, Mintz ED: High prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among Shigella isolates in the United States tested by the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System from 1999 to 2002. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 2006,50(1):49-54. 10.1128/AAC.50.1.49-54.2006PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Hagens S, Loessner MJ: Bacteriophage for biocontrol of foodborne pathogens: calculations and considerations. Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology 2010, 11: 58-68. 10.2174/138920110790725429View ArticlePubMed
- Kutter E, Sulakvelidze A: Bacteriophages: biology and applications. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2005.
- Garcia P, Martinez B, Obeso JM, Rodriguez A: Bacteriophages and their application in food safety. Letters in Applied Microbiology 2008, 47: 479-485. 10.1111/j.1472-765X.2008.02458.xView ArticlePubMed
- Strauch E, Hammerl J, Hertwig S: Bacteriophages: New Tools for Safer Food. Journal für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit 2007,2(2):138-143. 10.1007/s00003-007-0188-5View Article
- Clokie MR, Kropinski AM: Bacteriophages: Methods and Protocols. Molecular and Applied Aspects: Humana Press; 2009.
- Ackermann HW: Bacteriophage observations and evolution. Research in Microbiology 2003,154(4):245-251. 10.1016/S0923-2508(03)00067-6View ArticlePubMed
- Brüssow H, Hendrix RW: Phage Genomics: Small Is Beautiful. Cell 2002,108(1):13-16. 10.1016/S0092-8674(01)00637-7View ArticlePubMed
- Hendrix RW, Hatfull GF, Smith MCM: Bacteriophages with tails: chasing their origins and evolution. Research in Microbiology 2003,154(4):253-257. 10.1016/S0923-2508(03)00068-8View ArticlePubMed
- Lavigne R, Seto D, Mahadevan P, Ackermann H, Kropinski AM: Unifying classical and molecular taxonomic classification: analysis of the Podoviridae using BLASTP-based tools. Research in Microbiology 2008,159(5):406-414. 10.1016/j.resmic.2008.03.005View ArticlePubMed
- Lavigne R, Darius P, Summer EJ, Seto D, Mahadevan P, Nilsson AS, Ackermann H-, Kropinski AM: Classification of Myoviridae bacteriophages using protein sequence similarity. BMC Microbiology 2009, 9: 224. 10.1186/1471-2180-9-224PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Pickard D, Thomson NR, Baker S, Wain J, Pardo M, Goulding D, Hamlin N, Choudhary J, Threfall J, Dougan G: Molecular characterization of the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi Vi-typing bacteriophage E1. Journal of Bacteriology 2008,190(7):2580-2587. 10.1128/JB.01654-07PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Ackermann HW: Ultrastructure of Vi phages I to VII of Salmonella typhi . Canadian Journal of Microbiology 1970,16(6):411-413. 10.1139/m70-070View ArticlePubMed
- Werquin M, Ackermann H, Levesque RC: A study of 33 bacteriophages of Rhizobium meliloti . Applied & Environmental Microbiology 1988,54(1):188-196.
- Ackermann H, Brochu G, Emadi Konjin HP: Classification of Acinetobacter phages. Archives of Virology 1994,135(3):345-354. 10.1007/BF01310019View ArticlePubMed
- Coffi H: Lysotypie des Acinetobacter . MSc thesis, Laval University, Medical School, Quebec, QC, Canada; 1995:82.
- Hendrix RW, Casjens SR: Myoviridae. In In Virus Taxonomy - Eighth Report of the Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses. Elsevier Academic Press; 2005.
- Pickard D, Toribio AL, Petty NK, van Tonder A, Yu L, Goulding D, Barrell B, Rance R, Harris D, Wetter M, Wain J, Choudhary J, Thomson N, Dougan G: A Conserved Acetyl Esterase Domain Targets Diverse Bacteriophages to the Vi Capsular Receptor of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi. Journal of Bacteriology 2010,192(21):5746-5754. 10.1128/JB.00659-10PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Walter M, Fiedler C, Grassl R, Biebl M, Rachel R, Hermo-Parrado XL, Llamas-Saiz AL, Seckler R, Miller S, van Raaij MJ: Structure of the Receptor-Binding Protein of Bacteriophage Det7: a Podoviral Tail Spike in a Myovirus. Journal of Virology 2008,82(5):2265-2273. 10.1128/JVI.01641-07PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Sullivan MB, Coleman ML, Weigele P, Rohwer F, Chisholm SW: Three Prochlorococcus Cyanophage Genomes: Signature Features and Ecological Interpretations. PLoS Biology 2005,3(5):e144. 10.1371/journal.pbio.0030144PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Nolan J, Petrov V, Bertrand C, Krisch H, Karam J: Genetic diversity among five T4-like bacteriophages. Virology Journal 2006,3(1):30. 10.1186/1743-422X-3-30PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Kropinski AM, Bose RJ, Warren RA: 5-(4-Aminobutylaminomethyl)uracil, an unusual pyrimidine from the deoxyribonucleic acid of bacteriophage φW-14. Biochemistry 1973,12(1):151-157. 10.1021/bi00725a025View ArticlePubMed
- Geiduschek EP, Kassavetis GA: Transcription of the T4 late genes. Virology Journal 2010, 7: 288. 10.1186/1743-422X-7-288PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Crooks G, Hon G, Chandonia J, Brenner S: WebLogo: a sequence logo generator. Genome Research 2004,14(6):1188-1190. 10.1101/gr.849004PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Roberts MD, Martin NL, Kropinski AM: The genome and proteome of coliphage T1. Virology 2004,318(1):245-266. 10.1016/j.virol.2003.09.020View ArticlePubMed
- Bhardwaj A, Walker-Kopp N, Wilkens S, Cingolani G: Foldon-guided self-assembly of ultra-stable protein fibers. Protein Sci 2008,17(9):1475-1485. 10.1110/ps.036111.108PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Heyns K, Kiessling G: Strukturaufklärung des vi-antigens aus Citrobacter freundii (E. coli) 5396/38. Carbohydrate Research 1967,3(3):340-353. 10.1016/S0008-6215(00)82210-7View Article
- Daniels EM, Schneerson R, Egan WM, Szu SC, Robbins JB: Characterization of the Salmonella paratyphi C Vi polysaccharide. Infection & Immunity 1989,57(10):3159-3164.
- Petrov VM, Ratnayaka S, Nolan JM, Miller ES, Karam JD: Genomes of the T4-related bacteriophages as windows on microbial genome evolution. Virology Journal 2010, 7: 292. 10.1186/1743-422X-7-292PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Carlton RM, Noordman WH, Biswas B, de Meester ED, Loessner MJ: Bacteriophage P100 for control of Listeria monocytogenes in foods: Genome sequence, bioinformatic analyses, oral toxicity study, and application. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 2005,43(3):301-312. 10.1016/j.yrtph.2005.08.005View ArticlePubMed
- Sambrook J, Fritsch EF, Maniatis T: Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual. 2nd edition. NY: Cold Spring Harbor; 1989.
- Ellis EL, Delbrück M: The growth of bacteriophage. The Journal of General Physiology 1939,22(3):365-384. 10.1085/jgp.22.3.365PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Koski L, Gray M, Lang BF, Burger G: AutoFACT: An Automatic Functional Annotation and Classification Tool. BMC Bioinformatics 2005,6(1):151. 10.1186/1471-2105-6-151PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Shine J, Dalgarno L: The 3'-terminal sequence of Escherichia coli 16S ribosomal RNA: complementarity to nonsense triplets and ribosome binding sites. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1974,71(4):1342-1346. 10.1073/pnas.71.4.1342PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Shine J, Dalgarno L: Terminal-sequence analysis of bacterial ribosomal RNA. European Journal of Biochemistry 1975,57(1):221-230. 10.1111/j.1432-1033.1975.tb02294.xView ArticlePubMed
- Schattner P, Brooks AN, Lowe TM: The tRNAscan-SE, snoscan and snoGPS web servers for the detection of tRNAs and snoRNAs. Nucleic Acids Research 2005,33(Web Server Issue suppl 2):W686-W689.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Laslett D, Canback B: ARAGORN, a program to detect tRNA genes and tmRNA genes in nucleotide sequences. Nucleic Acids Research 2004,32(1):11-16. 10.1093/nar/gkh152PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Finn RD, Mistry J, Tate J, Coggill P, Heger A, Pollington JE, Gavin OL, Gunasekaran P, Ceric G, Forslund K, Holm L, Sonnhammer ELL, Eddy SR, Bateman A: The Pfam protein families database. Nucleic Acids Research 2010,38(Database issue suppl_1):D211-D222.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Ermolaeva MD, Khalak HG, White O, Smith HO, Salzberg SL: Prediction of transcription terminators in bacterial genomes. Journal of Molecular Biology 2000,301(1):27-33. 10.1006/jmbi.2000.3836View ArticlePubMed
- Zuker M: Mfold web server for nucleic acid folding and hybridization prediction. Nucleic Acids Research 2003,31(13):3406-3415. 10.1093/nar/gkg595PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Mitra A, Kesarwani AK, Pal D, Nagaraja V: WebGeSTer DB--a transcription terminator database. Nucleic Acids Research 2011,39(suppl_ 1):D129-D135.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Zafar N, Mazumder R, Seto D: CoreGenes: A computational tool for identifying and cataloging "core" genes in a set of small genomes. BMC Bioinformatics 2002,3(1):12. 10.1186/1471-2105-3-12PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Kropinski AM, Borodovsky M, Carver TJ, Cerdeño-Tárraga AM, Darling A, Lomsadze A, Mahadevan P, Stothard P, Seto D, Domselaar G, Wishart DS: In silico identification of genes in bacteriophage DNA. Bacteriophages 2009, 57-89.View Article
- Krogh A, Larsson B, von Heijne G, Sonnhammer ELL: Predicting transmembrane protein topology with a hidden markov model: application to complete genomes. Journal of Molecular Biology 2001,305(3):567-580. 10.1006/jmbi.2000.4315View ArticlePubMed
- Kall L, Krogh A, Sonnhammer ELL: Advantages of combined transmembrane topology and signal peptide prediction--the Phobius web server. Nucleic Acids Research 2007,35(suppl_2):W429-432.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Grant JR, Stothard P: The CGView Server: a comparative genomics tool for circular genomes. Nucleic Acids Research 2008,36(suppl 2):W181-W184.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.