Ex vivo promoter analysis of antiviral heat shock cognate 70B gene inAnopheles gambiae
© Kang et al. 2008
Received: 14 October 2008
Accepted: 05 November 2008
Published: 05 November 2008
TheAnopheles gambiae heat shock cognate gene (hsc70B) encodes a constitutively expressed protein in thehsp70 family and it functions as a molecular chaperone for protein folding. However, the expression ofhsc70B can be further induced by certain stimuli such as heat shock and infection. We previously demonstrated that theAn. gambiae hsc70B is induced during o'nyong-nyong virus (ONNV) infection and subsequently suppresses ONNV replication in the mosquito. To further characterize the inducibility ofhsc70B by ONNV infection inAn. gambiae, we cloned a 2.6-kb region immediately 5' upstream of the starting codon ofhsc70B into a luciferase reporter vector (pGL3-Basic), and studied its promoter activity in transfected Vero cells during infection with o'nyong-nyong, West Nile and La Crosse viruses.
Serial deletion analysis of thehsc70B upstream sequence revealed that the putative promoter is likely located in a region 1615–2150 bp upstream of thehsc70B starting codon. Sequence analysis of this region revealed transcriptional regulatory elements for heat shock element-binding protein (HSE-bind), nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), dorsal (Dl) and fushi-tarazu (Ftz). Arbovirus infection, regardless of virus type, significantly increased thehsc70B promoter activity in transfected Vero cells.
Our results further validate the transcriptional activation ofhsc70B during arbovirus infection and support the role of specific putative regulatory elements. Induction by three taxonomically distinct arboviruses suggests that the HSC70B protein may be expressed to cope with cellular stress imposed during infection.
TheAnopheles gambiae mosquito is the principle vector of the malaria parasitePlasmodium falciparum in sub-Saharan Africa. Current estimates suggest that nearly half of the global population is at risk of malaria and there are annually approximately 250 million cases resulting in a million deaths . In addition,An. gambiae vectors o'nyong-nyong virus (ONNV), a single-stranded (+) RNA virus (Togaviridae; Alphavirus) [2–4]. Symptoms of ONNV infection in humans include rash, fever and polyarthritis often resulting in high morbidity rates during epidemics [5, 6].
Although most arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are vectored by culicine mosquitoes, ONNV is primarily vectored by the anopheline mosquitoesAn. gambiae andAn. funestus . In spite of the unusual vector specificity, ONNV shares a common host cell entry mechanism with many other arboviruses. Endocytosis and subsequent fusion with the host's membrane in the endosome are exploited by ONNV to infect host cells . Alphaviruses, including ONNV, Sindbis virus, and Chikungunya virus have class II fusion proteins such as E glycoproteins that mediate membrane fusion between virus and host cells during virus entry [8, 9]. Class II E glycoproteins mainly consist of beta sheet-folded domains while class I E proteins are α-helices [10, 11]. Since membrane fusion is one of the protein maturation processes mediated by molecular chaperones, such as the HSP70 family, it is possible that HSP70 may enhance or suppress maturation of viral proteins [12–14].
Members of the HSP70 family contain three conserved domains: an ATPase domain at the N-terminus, a peptide binding domain, and a GP-rich region at the C-terminus that contains an EEVD motif [15–17]. HSP70, a molecular chaperone, changes its conformation in an ATP dependent manner to mediate proper target protein folding, degradation and translocation [18, 19]. The carboxy-terminal EEVD motif is a unique feature of cytosolic heat shock proteins that is recognized by chaperone cofactors to initiate chaperone activity [20–22]. The heat shock cognate protein 70 (HSC70) is a constitutively expressed member of the HSP70 family and functions as a molecular chaperone under normal cellular conditions. However, the expression of the HSC70 gene may be increased in response to environmental and physiological stress .
TheAn. gambiae HSC70B is an ortholog ofDrosophila melanogaster Hsc70-4 . cDNA microarray studies demonstrated that HSC70B is upregulated during ONNV infection in adultAn. gambiae, suggesting an important role during virus infection . The functional importance of HSC70B upregulation in ONNV-infected femaleAn. gambiae was further elucidated by RNAi gene silencing of thehsc70B transcript . Reduction of thehsc70B transcript by RNAi silencing enhanced ONNV replicationin vivo. Likewise, enhanced ONNV replication in HSC70B-knockdown mosquitoes suggests that HSC70 proteins play an important role in arbovirus suppression and maintaining homeostasis during infection .
To further elucidate the transcriptional regulation of thehsc70B locus in response to viral infection, we characterized the 5' upstream region of thehsc70B coding sequenceex vivo using cell culture and luciferase reporter systems. Herein, we report the identification of a regulatory region essential forhsc70B transcription. Furthermore, the kinetic properties ofhsc70B transcription during arbovirus infections were examined with ONNV (Togaviridae; Alphavirus), West Nile virus (Flaviviridae; Flavivirus) and La Crosse virus (Bunyaviridae; Orthobunyavirus). The results showed that thehsc70B promoter region was responsive to all three arboviruses. Induction ofhsc70B transcription by three taxonomically different arboviruses suggests that the HSC70B protein may be expressed to cope with cellular stress imposed during infection. The biological implications of these data are discussed.
Sequence analysis of the 5' upstream ofhsc70B
Deletion analysis of thehsc70B promoter
Effect of ONNV infection on the pGL3-2.6k and pGL3-2.2khsc70B promoter plasmid constructs
Effect of arbovirus infection on thehsc70B promoter activity
Repression of ONNV replication by the HSC70B protein was previously shown inAn. gambiae [23, 24]. Of particular interest in this result is the transcriptional regulation ofhsc70B expression in response to ONNV infection inAn. gambiae. To map and characterize the promoter activity ofhsc70B, the upstream region up to 2599 bp from the putative starting codon ofhsc70B was subjected to a luciferase reporter assay. Initially, the 2599 bp upstream sequence of thehsc70B showed a promoter activity (Figure 2). Subsequent deletion analysis of this region revealed that the regulatory elements critical forhsc70B transcription reside between 2150 ~ 1615 bp upstream of thehsc70B starting codon (Figure 2). Deletion of this 535 bp region abolished the promoter activity ofhsc70B. This regulatory region contains several binding sites for transcription factors such as HSE-bind, CRE, NF-κB, dorsal, and Ftz (Figure 1). HSE is a binding site for heat shock transcription factors that are activated in response to environmental and physical stresses such as heat shock and microbial infection [25, 26]. Inhsc70B, there is one putative HSE consisting of a block of three repeats of a 5-bp sequence, 5'-nGAAn-3'. Although the number of HSE blocks can vary among different HSPs, the 5-bp HSE repeat is highly conserved in the regulatory region of various heat shock proteins such ashsp70,hsp83, andhsp27 inDrosophila . The second and third repeat in the HSE block ofAn. gambiae hsc70B has a tail-to-tail (5'nTTCnnGAAn3') arrangement with 6-bp gaps between them (Figure 1). InDrosophila HSPs, there are 5 or less gaps, if any, between the 5-bp repeats . It will thus be interesting to learn how the additional gap inAn. gambiae hsc70B regulateshsc70B expression.
CRE is a response element for phosphorylated CREB (c-AMP response element-binding protein) which regulates transcription of genes. CREB is involved in human hsp90 gene expression which is constitutively expressed . Thus, CRE may be a key element to induce basic transcription ofAn. gambiae hsc70B gene as it is also a constitutively expressed member of HSPs. NF-κB is a transcription factor which responds to stresses including viral infection . Transcription of NF-κB was shown to be increased by downregulation of HSC70B protein in rat pancreatic acinar AR42J cells . Ftz is a transcription factor that was originally isolated inDrosophila. It has many orthologs in various species and is involved infushi tarazu gene expression which functions in embryonic segmentation inDrosophila and sex determination in zebrafish [31, 32]. Further biochemical and molecular characterization using electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) and DNase I protection assay should elucidate key elements that transcriptionally regulateAn. gambiae hsc70B expression in response to ONNV infection. These assays will further improve our understanding of transcriptional regulation ofhsc70B, and facilitate the identification of transcriptional factors and co-factors in the signal transduction pathway ofhsc70B expression.
ONNV was used to infect Vero cells to examine the effects onhsc70B promoter activity. The different lengths, 2150 bp and 2599 bp, of the 5' upstream sequences were tested because these two constructs contain the regulatory sequence for the basic transcription ofhsc70B. Both 2150 bp and 2599 bp upstream genomic fragments responded to ONNV infection and the promoter activities of both constructs increased during ONNV infection (Figure 3). When Vero cells were transfected with either pGL3-2.6k or pGL3-2.2k reporter plasmid, the promoter activity in the reporter plasmids was about 2-fold higher in infected cells than the uninfected control (Figure 3). This suggests that induction ofAn. gambiae hsc70B gene, leading to expression of the HSC70B protein, results from virus infection. Therefore, it is reasonable to speculate that cellular signals are transduced to the regulatory region of thehsc70B locus inAn. gambiae.
The 2150-bp 5' upstream sequence was used to further investigate the effects of ONNV infection on thehsc70B promoter activity at different time points after infection. The promoter activity ofhsc70B was significantly higher in infected cells at later time points (48 and 72 hpi) than earlier points (1 and 24 hpi) (Figure 4A). The elevatedhsc70B promoter activity corresponded with increasing viral titers at 48 and 72 hpi because plaque assays of the cell culture media showed higher ONNV titers at these later time points (Figure 4A). These plaque assay data were further evaluated by observing CPE in ONNV-infected Vero cells. CPE became apparent at 48 and 72 hpi in Vero cells while uninfected control cells did not show cell lysis (Figure 4B). The appearance of CPE in ONNV-infected Vero cells corresponded to higher ONNV titers at 48 and 72 hpi. It can be thus inferred that induction ofhsc70B transcription may be triggered in response to cellular stresses burdened by rapidly replicating viruses. In cells at immediate or early infection stages,hsc70B expression may not be activated.
The inducibility of thehsc70B promoter was also examined using two additional arboviruses, WNV (Flaviviridae) and LACV (Bunyaviridae). Like ONNV, both WNV and LACV were also able to upregulate the transcription activity ofhsc70B during infection (Figure 5). Due to more rapid kinetics of replication, both WNV and LACV caused thehsc70B promoter activity to rise earlier than ONNV. For example, WNV-infected Vero cells started to show transcriptional induction as early as 24 hpi. Transcriptional activation ofhsc70B by three different arboviruses suggests that upregulation ofhsc70B expression indeed results from cellular stresses caused by virus infection in host cells. In addition, activation of thehsc70B promoter by virus infection was recently shown in shrimp (Penaeus monodon) . Using a luciferase reporter in Sf21 cells, Chuanget al. (2007) demonstrated 5.5-fold induction of the shrimphsc70B promoter when the Sf21 cells were infected withAutographa californica multiple nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV; MOI = 0.1). Therefore, it appears that induction ofhsc70B expression may be a general cellular response of host cells to virus infection.
We previously reported that the transcriptional activation ofhsc70B in ONNV-infectedAn. gambiae renders the mosquito an ability to repress ONNV replication [23, 24]. Thesein vivo findings and our currentex vivo characterization of thehsc70B regulatory region unequivocally indicate that the induction of HSC70B may be a mosquito innate immune response against virus infection. To support this hypothesis, mosquito cells (e.g., C6/36 cells fromAe. albopictus) do not show any CPE during arbovirus infection while mammalian cells including Vero cells display prominent CPE and subsequent cell lysis due to overreplication of viruses. Evolutionally, mosquitoes may have acquired the ability to maintain viral titers below a certain threshold, below which mosquitoes may serve as arboviral vectors without pathogenesis from viral infections. Interestingly, a potent antiviral drug, prostaglandin A, showed antiviral effects against Sendai or Sindbis virus through induction of HSP70 proteins in AGMK cells (African green monkey kidney) or Vero cells, respectively [34, 35]. Therefore, comparative studies on HSP expression in response to viral infection between mosquito and mammalian cells will provide a deeper insight into innate immune responses to viral infection between mosquito vectors and mammalian hosts.
Construction ofAn. gambiae hsc70B promoter-luciferase reporter gene
Primer sequences used to construct pGL3-hsc70B plasmids
Primer sequence (5' to 3')
Forward primer to construct pGL3-2.6k
Forward primer to construct pGL3-2.2k
Forward primer to construct pGL3-1.6k
Forward primer to construct pGL3-0.9k
Forward primer to construct pGL3-0.3k
Reverse primer to construct all plasmids
Analysis of 5' upstream sequence ofhsc70B
Transfection and luciferase activity assay of thehsc70B promoter activity in Vero cells
Transfection experiments were performed in 24-well plates using the Lipofectamine reagent according to the manufacturer's instructions (Invitrogen, CA). Briefly, Vero cells (ATCC: CCL-81) were seeded and incubated at 37°C with 5% CO2 in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) for 24 h prior to transfection at a density of 0.5 × 105 cells/well. When the cells reached ~80% confluency, the culture media was removed and 200 μl of fresh DMEM without antibiotics or fetal bovine serum (FBS) was added. The cells were then co-transfected with 400 ng of pGL3 firefly (Photinus pyralis) luciferase constructs containing varying lengths of thehsc70B upstream region (e.g., pGL3-2.6k, pGL3-2.2k, pGL3-1.6k, pGL3-0.9k, pGL3-0.3k, or pGL3-Basic) and 0.05 ng of a pRL-cmvRenilla reniformis luciferase construct. The pRL-cmv construct was used as an internal control, in which theRenilla luciferase expression is driven by the cytomegalovirus promoter (cmv). Because the pGL3-Basic is a promoterless reporter plasmid containing only the coding sequence of firefly luciferase it served as a background control. At 3 h post transfection, the transfection mixture was replaced with a complete medium including 100 U/mL Penicillin-Streptomycin, and 10% FBS. Cells were harvested at pre-defined time points post transfection. The luciferase activities were measured by the Dual-Luciferase Reporter Assay System (Promega, WI) according to manufacturer's instructions. Quantification of the luminescent signals was performed using a Synergy HT microplate reader (BioTek, USA). In order to account for heterogeneous transfection efficiencies and cell viabilities among different samples, the firefly luminescence values were normalized as a ratio of theRenilla luminescence values. A minimum of three biological replicates were included for the time course experiments with ONNV. For time course experiments with WNV and LACV, the mean values and standard deviations were calculated from four biological replicates out of six replicates. The largest and the smallest values from these replicates were excluded from the analysis.
The SG650 strain of ONNV has previously been described . The WNV isolate (LA-11-2005) was isolated by BDB from the brain tissue of a blue jay (Cyanocitta cristata) found in New Iberia, LA during 2005. A cloacal swab from the bird tested positive for WNV by the Rapid Analyte Measurement Platform (RAMP, Adapco, Inc.). Subsequent nucleic acid amplification and sequencing of the PreM-Envelope region of the isolate confirmed the RAMP identification (GenBank Accession Number DQ646699). The virus was isolated in Vero cells and had not been further passaged. The LACV (78-V-13193) was obtained from the World Reference Center for Arboviruses at the University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX. The virus had been passed once in suckling mouse brain and twice in Vero cells.
To determine the effect of viral infection on the promoter activity ofhsc70B, Vero cells cotransfected with pGL3-2.6k or pGL3-2.2k and pRL-cmv were infected with ONNV, WNV or LACV 12 h post transfection. For ONNV, confluent monolayers of Vero cells were infected at an MOI (multiplicity of infection) of 0.001. The infected cells were harvested at predetermined time points (e.g., 1, 24, 48 and 72 h post-infection) during time course experiments. Otherwise, the cells were harvested at 60 h post infection when CPE were evident. For the WNV and LACV time course experiments, confluent monolayers of Vero cells were infected at an MOI of 0.01 and the infected cells were harvested at 1, 24, 36 and 48 hpi. Viral titers were determined by a standard plaque assay in Vero cells .
The authors are grateful to M. Kern of University of Notre Dame for providing BAC clones containing thehsc70B locus. We appreciate Dr. D. Wesson of Tulane University for providing reagents and cell culture facilities and M. Rider of Tulane University for his critical review of the manuscript. This work was supported by the Louisiana Board of Regents Fund (LEQSF(2005-08)-RD-A-35) and Tulane Research Enhancement Fund to YSH.
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