Muscovy duck reovirus p10.8 protein localizes to the nucleus via a nonconventional nuclear localization signal
- Dongchun Guo†1,
- Na Qiu†1,
- Wulin Shaozhou†1,
- Xiaofei Bai1,
- Yilong He1,
- Qingshan Zhang1,
- Jian Zhao1,
- Ming Liu1Email author and
- Yun Zhang1Email author
© Guo et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014
Received: 12 November 2013
Accepted: 18 February 2014
Published: 24 February 2014
It was previously report that the first open reading frame of Muscovy duck reocvirus S4 gene encodes a 95-amino-acid protein, designed p10.8, which has no sequence similarity to other known proteins. Its amino acid sequence offers no clues about its function.
Subcellular localization and nuclear import signal of p10.8 were characterized. We found that p10.8 protein localizes to the nucleus of infected and transfected cells, suggesting that p10.8 nuclear localization is not facilitated by viral infection or any other viral protein. A functional non-canonical nuclear localization signal (NLS) for p10.8 was identified and mapped to N-terminus residues 1–40. The NLS has the ability to retarget a large cytoplasmic protein to the nucleus.
p10.8 imported into the nucleus might via a nonconventional signal nuclear signal.
KeywordsMuscovy duck reocvirus p10.8 protein Nuclear localization signal
The Muscovy duck reovirus (MDRV) is a member of the Orthoreovirus genus, of the Reoviridae family. MDRV is an important poultry pathogen that causes high morbidity and mortality in ducklings. Its genome consisting of 10 segments of double-stranded RNA [1–4], each of which is mono-cistronic, with the exception of the S4 gene, which encodes two proteins in overlapping open reading frames (ORFs).
A regular consequence of viral infection is perturbation of host cell nuclear functions. Although reovirus replication occurs in the cytoplasm, infection could disrupt a variety of host cell nuclear functions, resulting in a virus-induced cytopathic effect in infected cells and tissue injury in the infected host. Both mammalian reovirus σ1s (σ1ns) and avian reovirus p17 localizes to the nucleus in infected and transfected cells [5–7]. Mammalian reovirus σ1s and MDRV p10.8 have been confirmed to induce apoptosis in vivo and in vitro, respectively [8, 9], suggesting that they are functionally related.
When we initiated this study, little is known about the activity or properties of the duck reovirus p10.8 protein. Furthermore, this polypeptide has no significant sequence similarity to other known proteins, so its amino acid sequence offers no clues about its function. On the other hand, the fact that the p10.8 is conserved in every Muscovy duck reovirus S4 gene sequence reported so far suggests that p10.8 plays an important function in virus-host interactions. The results of this study demonstrate that p10.8 is a nuclear targeting protein, utilizing a previously unrecognized NLS. This sub-cellular localization studies may shed new light on the potential roles of this proteins in pathogenesis.
P10.8 localizes to the nucleoplasm of S14 infected cells
P10.8 nuclear localization is independent on viral infection
Mapping p10.8 nuclear localization functional sequence
Residues 1 to 40 with the ability to translocate GST protein to the nucleus
Because p10.8 has a mass of 10.8 kDa, it may be that GFPp10.8(1–40) (less than 60 kDa) entered the nucleus by passive diffusion. To ensure that the nuclear localization of GFPp10.8(1–40) was dependent upon active p10.8 signal-mediated nuclear import and was not the result of passive diffusion, we expressed GFPp10.8(1–40) as a fusion with the cytoplasmic reporter protein (glutathione S-transferase, GST) (55 kDa). The large size of the GFPp10.8(1–40)-GST fusion protein (about 93 kDa) ensured that the nuclear localization was not due to passive diffusion. Vero cells were transfected with either GFP-GST or GFP-p10.8(1–40)-GST and analyzed via fluorescence microscopy. As expected, the GFP-GST construct that lacked p10.8(1–40) was restricted to the cytoplasm (Figure 3C); however, insertion of p10.8 (1–40) resulted in the translocation of GFPp10.8(1–40)-GST to the nucleus (Figure 3C), indicating that p10.8(1–40) was able to direct GST into the nucleus through the NPC by a signal-mediated import mechanism and not by passive diffusion, since the molecular mass of GFPp10.8GST (93 kDa) exceeded the 50- to 60-kDa limit for free diffusion through NPCs. From these experiments, we conclude that amino acids 1–40 are necessary for the nuclear localization of a heterologous protein that is otherwise cytoplasmic.
This study demonstrates that p10.8 targets the nucleus of transfected cells and that this targeting does not require other viral factors, thereby suggesting that the viral protein itself has the ability to translocate across the nuclear pore complex (NPC) and accumulate in the nucleus. Because p10.8 has a mass of ~10.8 kDa, it was possible that it might enter the nucleus by passive diffusion; however, we showed that p10.8 is actively imported into the nucleus, because (1) GFPp10.8 and fragments GFPp10.8(1–40) and GFPp10.8(1–65) were able to transport the GFP protein into the nucleus, but this property was not displayed by fragments p10.8 (65–95) and p10.8(40–95); (2) GFP(1–40) could translocate GST to the nucleus, and molecular mass of GFPp10.8(1–40)GST exceeded the limit for free diffusion through NPCs. Our data thus suggest that p10.8 is imported into the nucleus through the NPC via a signal-mediated nuclear localization.
The active import of proteins into nuclei requires NLSs [11–15]. The best-characterized transport sequences of classic NLSs comprise one or two short stretches of basic lysine- or arginine-rich residues. Recently, a variety of nonconforming NLSs that are not particularly rich in lysine or arginine have been identified in various viral and cellular proteins [16–19]. However, in addition to linear NLSs, discontinuous epitopes or a tertiary structure to contribute to the nuclear import of proteins have been described [20–22]. Our study indicate that the nuclear targeting signal, p10.8(1–40), does not contain any stretches of basic residues that typify the classic NLS sequences, even if it is highly conserved among MDRV. Thus, p10.8(1–40) shows characteristics that distinguish it from classic NLSs. Moreover, nuclear target motif experiments demonstrated that three deletion constructs, GFP(1–10), GFP(10–30), and GFP(30–40) are indispensable, suggesting that full sequences or a complex structure of p10.8(1–40) appears to be essential for nuclear import activity. Our finding might be in keeping with the hypothesis, derived from the import of STAT1 and pUL84, that not only non-canonical sequences but complex folding may generate NLSs [21, 23]. Report from well-described human ribonucleoprotein A1 import signal, M9 domain, indicate that aromatic amino acids may generate NLSs . Our sequence analysis of p10.8(1–40) revealed that it is rich in aromatic amino acids (Figure 2C). Determination of mutation of these aromatic amino acids may help to identify whether they are responsible for the active nuclear import of the MDRV p10.8 protein. Recently, another non-conventional nuclear transport mechanisms besides the nuclear pore itself have been well described . This might suggest future experiments to identify the exact transport mechanism used by p10.8.
Similar to nuclear import, the export of a protein from the nucleus depends on the presence of a specific signal, nuclear export signal (NES), with a leucine-rich motif [12, 13]. Interestingly, inspection of the p10.8 sequence revealed the presence of one leucine-rich motif (33L SVL AEL SDL FDL AI47) that matches the consensus for leucine-rich export sequences (Figure 2C). It will therefore be of interest to investigate whether this motif constitutes a functional nuclear export sequence and, consequently, whether p10.8 is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein.
The finding that MDRV, which replicates exclusively in the cytoplasm of the infected cell, expresses a nuclear protein was not surprising, since the small nonstructural protein p17 of avian reovirus and the 14-kDa nonstructural protein σ1s of mammalian reovirus have also been shown to accumulate in the nucleus of transfected and infected cells [6, 7]. However, a comparative analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of p10.8, p17, and σ1s revealed no significant similarities in their primary sequences and showed no conserved functional motifs. Yet, the fact that both p10.8 of MDRV and σ1s of mammalian reovirus can localize to the nucleus and cause apoptosis of infected or transfected cells [7, 8], suggests that σ1s and p10.8 may be functionally related. Cytoplasmic reovirus infection profoundly affects the host cell nucleus and its functions. In MDRV-infected cells, the p10.8 protein localizes to the nucleus indicate that p10.8 protein may accomplish an important function inside the nucleus during the phase of the viral replication and ultimately influence disease pathogenesis in the infected host.
In summary, the results of this study provide important information that p10.8 itself has the ability to translocate across the nuclear pore complex and accumulate in the nucleus. This information will highlight the need for nonconventional nuclear transport study.
Materials and methods
MDRV S14 was propagated, purified, and stored as described previously . Duck embryo fibroblasts (DEF) or Vero cells were grown in 6 well plates with coverslips containing DMEM (GIBCO BRL, MD) with 10% fetal calf serum (GIBCO BRL) at 37°C in an incubator supplied with 5% CO2. These cells were inoculated with S14 at a multiplicity of 10 PFU/cell. The infected cultures were processed for immunofluorescence analyses as described below.
Plasmid constructs and transfections
Full-length p10.8 was amplified by PCR using specific primers, which introduced a 5′Eco R I/3′ Kpn I or 5′Pst I/3′Sal I restriction sites for cloning into pcDNA3.1 and pEGFP-C1, respectively. The various fragments pEGFP-p10.8(1–65), pEGFP-p10.8(65–95), pEGFP-p10.8(1–40), pEGFP-p10.8 (40–95), and pEGFP-p10.8 (40–65) were constructed for mapping the NLS of p10.8. The p10.8 gene fragments fused with GST gene were cloned into pEGFP-C1 vector with primers introduce a 5′ Eco RI site and a 3′ Kpn I site, named GFPp10.8(1–40)-GST, GFPp10.8(1–10)-GST, GFPp10.8(30–40)-GST, and GFPp10.8(10–30)-GST. Proper framing and accuracy of sequences of all DNA constructs were confirmed by DNA sequencing. All primers used in this study and construction details are available upon request (Additional file 1: Table S1). Confluent Vero or DEF cells were transfected with 5 μg of the recombinant plasmids by using the FuGENE HD transfection reagent (Roche Applied Science) and were then immunostained with the mouse anti-p10.8 serum and with DAPI, as described below.
The immunofluorescence assays were carried out as described previously . Briefly, cells grown on coverslips in 6 well plates with or without S14 infection or plasmid transfection were fixed with 3.7% paraformaldehyde (Sigma, St. Luis, MO) dissolved in PBS (phosphate-buffer saline solution, pH 7.6) for 15 min, permeabilized with 0.1% Triton X-100 and 3%–5% bovine serum albumin (BSA) overnight at 4°C, blocked in 3%–5% BSA, and incubated with the mouse anti-p10.8 antiserum overnight at 4°C. After being washed, the cells were incubated with a secondary goat anti-mouse immunoglobulin G conjugate (ZSGB-BIO, Beijing, China) for 1 h at 30°C. The cells were then washed again, and the nuclei were visualized with DAPI stain. The stained cells were viewed by means of Zeiss Axioplan-2 or a confocal LSM 700 (Carl Zeiss) fluorescence microscopy. Images were analyzed using the emission between 436 and 490 nm. Images were processed with Adobe Photoshop (Adobe Systems).
Muscovy duck reovirus
Duck embryo fibroblasts
Nuclear localization signal
Hours post infection
Hours post transfection
Nuclear pore complex.
This work was supported by Modern Agro-industry Technology Research System (CARS-43-10) and National Nature Science Foundation of China (31072132).
- Zhang Y, Guo GC, Geng HW, Liu M, Hu QL, Wang JW, Tong GZ, Kong XG, Liu N, Liu CG: Characterization of M-class genome segments of Muscovy duck reovirus S14. Virus Res 2007, 125: 42-53. 10.1016/j.virusres.2006.12.004PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kuntz-Simon G, Le Gall-Recule G, de Boisseson C, Jestin V: Muscovy duckreovirus σC protein is a typically encoded by the smallest genome segment. J Gen Virol 2002, 83: 1189-1200.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wang D, Shi J, Yuan Y, Zheng L, Zhang D: Complete sequence of a reovirus associated with necrotic focus formation in the liver and spleen of Muscovy ducklings. Vet Microbiol 2013,166(1–2):109-122.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yun T, Yu B, Ni Z, Ye W, Chen L, Hua J, Zhang C: Isolation and genomic characterization of a classical Muscovy duck reovirus isolated in Zhejiang, China. Infect Genet Evol 2013, 20: 444-453.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Belli BA, Samuel CE: Biosynthesis of reovirus-specified polypeptides: expression of reovirus S1-encoded sigma 1NS protein in transfected and infected cells as measured with serotype specific polyclonal antibody. Virology 1991, 185: 698-709. 10.1016/0042-6822(91)90541-IPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Costas C, Martı’nez-Costas J, Bodelo’n JG, Benavente J: The second open reading frame of the avian reovirus S1 gene encodes a transcription-dependent and CRM1-independent nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein. J Virol 2005, 79: 2141-2150. 10.1128/JVI.79.4.2141-2150.2005PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hoyt C, Bouchard RJ, Tyler KL: Novel nuclear herniations induced by nuclear localization of a viral protein. J Virol 2004, 78: 6360-6369. 10.1128/JVI.78.12.6360-6369.2004PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Geng HW, Zhang Y, Liu-Partanen Y, Seng VH, Guo DC, Wang Y, Liu M, Tong GZ: Apoptosis induced by duck reovirus p10.8 Protein in primary duck embryonated fibroblast and Vero E6 cells. Avian Dis 2009, 53: 434-440. 10.1637/8514-110408-Reg.1PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hoyt CC, Richardson-Burns SM, Goody RJ, Robinson BA, Debiasi RL, Tyler L: Nonstructural protein sigma1s is a determinant of reovirus virulence and influences the kinetics and severity of apoptosis induction in the heart and central nervous system. J Virol 2005, 79: 2743-2753. 10.1128/JVI.79.5.2743-2753.2005PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Dingwall C, Laskey RA: Nuclear targeting sequences—a consensus? Trends Biochem Sci 1991, 16: 478-481.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Dworetzky SI, Lanford RE, Feldherr CM: The effects of variations in the number and sequence of targeting signals on nuclear uptake. J Cell Biol 1988, 107: 1279-1287. 10.1083/jcb.107.4.1279PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gorlich D, Mattaj IW: Nucleocytoplasmic transport. Science 1996, 271: 1513-1518. 10.1126/science.271.5255.1513PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Go¨rlich D, Kutay U: Transport between the cell nucleus and the cytoplasm. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 1999, 15: 607-660. 10.1146/annurev.cellbio.15.1.607View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Macara IG: Transport into and out of the nucleus. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 2001, 65: 570-594. 10.1128/MMBR.65.4.570-594.2001PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nigg EA: Nucleocytoplasmic transport: signals, mechanisms and regulation. Nature 1997, 386: 779-787. 10.1038/386779a0PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jakel S, Gorlich D: Importin beta, transportin, RanBP5 and RanBP7 mediate nuclear import of ribosomal proteins in mammalian cells. EMBO J 1998, 17: 4491-4502. 10.1093/emboj/17.15.4491PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Makkerh JP, Dingwall C, Laskey RA: Comparative mutagenesis of nuclear localization signals reveals the importance of neutral and acidic amino acids. Curr Biol 1996, 6: 1025-1027. 10.1016/S0960-9822(02)00648-6PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Smith MR, Greene WC: Characterization of a novel nuclear localization signal in the HTLV-I tax transactivator protein. Virology 1992, 187: 316-320. 10.1016/0042-6822(92)90320-OPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Va’zquez-Iglesias L, Lostale’-Seijo I, Martínez-Costas J, Benavente J: Avian reovirus sigma a localizes to the nucleolus and enters the nucleus by a nonclassical energy- and carrier-independent pathway. J Virol 2009, 83: 10163-10175. 10.1128/JVI.01080-09View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Baake M, Doenecke D, Albig W: Characterization of nuclear localization signals of the four human core histones. J Cell Biochem 2001, 81: 333-346. 10.1002/1097-4644(20010501)81:2<333::AID-JCB1048>3.0.CO;2-DPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lischka P, Gabriele S, Kann M, Winkler M, Stamminger T: A nonconventional nuclear localization signal within the UL84 protein of human cytomegalovirus mediates nuclear import via the importin α/β pathway. J Virol 2003, 773: 734-3748.Google Scholar
- Wang TY, Yu BH, Lin LX, Zhai X, Han YL, Qin Y, Guo ZW, Wu S, Zhong XY, Zhang Y, Si XN, Zhao WR, Zhong ZH: A functional nuclear localization sequence in the VP1 capsid protein of coxsackievirus B3. Virology 2012, 433: 513-521. 10.1016/j.virol.2012.08.040PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- McBride KM, Banninger G, McDonald C, Reich NC: Regulated nuclear import of the STAT1 transcription factor by direct binding of importin-alpha. EMBO J 2002, 21: 1754-1763. 10.1093/emboj/21.7.1754PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Siomi H, Dreyfuss G: A nuclear localization domain in the hnRNP A1 protein. J Cell Biol 1995, 129: 551-560. 10.1083/jcb.129.3.551PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wagstaff KM, Jans DA: Importins and beyond: non-conventional nuclear transport mechanisms. Traffic 2009,10(9):1188-1198. 10.1111/j.1600-0854.2009.00937.xPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.