Dengue fever is a tropical infectious disease caused by Dengue virus (DENV), a single positive-stranded RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae; genus Flavivirus . Dengue virus infection is classified into dengue with or without warning signs and severe dengue. Dengue with or without warning signs is further classified into probable dengue and laboratory-confirmed dengue. A case of probable dengue would have lived in/travelled to dengue endemic areas and has fever and 2 of the following criteria: nausea/vomiting, rash, aches and pains, tourniquet test positive, leukopenia and any of the following: abdominal pain or tenderness, persistent vomiting, clinical fluid accumulation, mucosal bleed, lethargy/restlessness, liver enlargement of more 2 cm and increase in HCT concurrent with rapid decrease in platelet count. Meanwhile, severe dengue is classified as severe plasma leakage leading to dengue shock syndrome and fluid accumulation with respiratory distress; severe bleeding and severe organ (such as liver, CNS and heart) involvement [1, 2]. Without adequate clinical management, mortality stands at 1–5%  and usually less than 1% with adequate clinical management . However, severe disease carries a mortality of 26% . The disease is transmitted between people by mosquito species Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus
. The main vector associated with Dengue fever is Aedes aegypti
 which is found worldwide between latitudes 35°N and 35°S . Robinson GG. documented presence of Aedes Aegypti (L) in Zambia .
The disease is now endemic in more than 100 countries in Africa, the Americas, the Eastern Mediterranean, South-east Asia and Western Pacific . It has become common in Africa and amongst travellers from the tropics and subtropics. Dengue fever is common amongst travellers from the tropics and subtropics . Zambia which lies between latitude 8° and 18°S and longitude 22° and 34°E is considered generally of tropical climate [10, 11]. However, the contemporary worldwide risk of dengue virus infection is poorly known .
The dengue virus in Africa has been traced as far back as 1926 having caused an epidemic in Durban, South Africa [12, 13]. Though surveillance for dengue in Africa is poor, it is known that dengue epidemics have increased dramatically since 1980. Most activity has been documented in East Africa and major out breaks in many countries including Seychelles, Kenya, Mozambique, Djibouti, Somalia and Saudi Arabia between the 1970’s and 1990’s . Between 2009 and 2012 outbreaks were reported in more countries in Africa including Cape Verde, Cote d’Ivoire, Gabon, Senegal in West Africa, Djibouti [15, 16] and in Kenya and Sudan in East Africa . Most recently in 2013, Africa recorded dengue outbreaks in Angola, Kenya, Seychelles and Tanzania .
Zambia had no documented evidence of dengue infection except for a confirmed case of a European traveller/expatriate who was in Zambia between 1987 and 1993 . Travel by air, motor vehicles or foot increases the risk of introducing arthropod-borne virus diseases from endemic to non-endemic areas . There is increasing travel between the dengue endemic neighbouring countries and Zambia .
Zambia is a land linked country surrounded by countries endemic with dengue fever including Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Tanzania and Mozambique and yet there is no documented evidence of dengue fever. Zambia could be considered a risk area for dengue virus circulation, considering it neighbours dengue endemic countries, has tropical climate and carries the dengue vector Aedes aegypti
Recently during the Yellow Fever risk assessment conducted in two provinces of Zambia (Western and North-Western provinces), Zambia confirmed presence of dengue fever IgG antibodies in persons participating in the survey. IgG antibodies against dengue are detectable after 10–14 days of onset and once infected; one has life immunity to the specific serotype they were infected with . This paper describes the sero-prevalence and correlates for dengue fever specific IgG antibodies in Western and North-Western provinces in Zambia.